Flokstra-de Blok BM, Dubois AE, Vlieg-Boerstra BJ, Oude Elberink JN, Raat H, DunnGalvin A, et al. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients: comparison with the general population and other diseases. Allergy. 2010;65(2):238–44.
Mackenzie H, Roberts G, Van LD, Dean T. A new quality of life scale for teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23(5):404–11.
Voordouw J, Fox M, Cornelisse J, Antonides G, Mugford M, Frewer L. Household costs associated with food allergy: an exploratory study. British Food Journal. 2010;112(11):1205–15.
Sladkevicius E, Nagy E, Lack G, Guest JF. Resource implications and budget impact of managing cow milk allergy in the UK. J Med Econ. 2010;13(1):119–28.
Nwaru BI, Hickstein L, Panesar SS, Muraro A, Werfel T, Cardona V, et al. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2014 (in press).
Prescott SL, Pawankar R, Allen KJ, Campbell DE, Sinn JK, Fiocchi A, et al. A global survey of changing patterns of food allergy burden in children. World Allergy Organ J. 2013;6(1):21.
Venter C, Hasan AS, Grundy J, Pereira B, Bernie CC, Voigt K, et al. Time trends in the prevalence of peanut allergy: three cohorts of children from the same geographical location in the UK. Allergy. 2010;65(1):103–8.
Ker J, Hartert TV. The atopic march: what’s the evidence? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(4):282–9.
Dharmage SC, Lowe AJ, Matheson MC, Burgess JA, Allen KJ, Abramson MJ. Atopic dermatitis and the atopic march revisited. Allergy. 2013.
Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Higgins B, et al. Factors associated with maternal dietary intake, feeding and weaning practices, and the development of food hypersensitivity in the infant. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20(4):320–7.
McBride D, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, Dubakiene R, Drasutiene G, Fiocchi A, et al. The EuroPrevall birth cohort study on food allergy: baseline characteristics of 12,000 newborns and their families from nine European countries. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23(3):230–9.
Keil T, McBride D, Grimshaw K, Niggemann B, Xepapadaki P, Zannikos K, et al. The multinational birth cohort of EuroPrevall: background, aims and methods. Allergy. 2010;20(65):482–90.
Grimshaw KE, Maskell J, Oliver EM, Morris RC, Foote KD, Mills EN, et al. Diet and food allergy development during infancy: birth cohort study findings using prospective food diary data. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):511–9.
Grimshaw KE, Maskell J, Oliver EM, Morris RC, Foote KD, Mills EN, et al. Introduction of complementary foods and the relationship to food allergy. Pediatrics. 2013;132(6):e1529–38.
Johansson SGO, Bieber T, Dahl R, Friedmann PS, Lanier BQ, Lockey RF, et al. Revised nomenclature for allergy for global use: report of the nomenclature review committee of the World Allergy Organization, October 2003. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:832–6.
http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/dae/exlogit.htm. Accessed 26 June 2015.
Nwaru BI, Hickstein L, Panesar SS, Roberts G, Muraro A, Sheikh A. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2014.
Burr ML, Limb ES, Maguire MJ, Amarah L, Eldridge BA, Layzell JC, et al. Infant feeding, wheezing, and allergy: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child. 1993;68(6):724–8.
Hourihane JO, Dean TP, Warner JO. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges. BMJ. 1996;313(7056):518–21.
Ruiz RG, Kemeny DM, Price JF. Higher risk of infantile atopic dermatitis from maternal atopy than from paternal atopy. Clin Exp Allergy. 1992;22(8):762–6.
McKeever TM, Lewis SA, Smith C, Hubbard R. Mode of delivery and risk of developing allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109(5):800–2.
Eggesbo M, Botten G, Stigum H, Nafstad P, Magnus P. Is delivery by cesarean section a risk factor for food allergy? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112(2):420–6.
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Early solid food diet and eczema in childhood: a 10-year longitudinal study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1994;5(6 Suppl):44–7.
Kajosaari M. Atopy prophylaxis in high-risk infants. Prospective 5-year follow-up study of children with six months exclusive breastfeeding and solid food elimination. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;310:453–8.
Nwaru BI, Takkinen HM, Niemela O, Kaila M, Erkkola M, Ahonen S, et al. Introduction of complementary foods in infancy and atopic sensitization at the age of 5 years: timing and food diversity in a Finnish birth cohort. Allergy. 2013;68(4):507–16.
Werfel T, Ballmer-Weber B, Eigenmann PA, Niggemann B, Rance F, Turjanmaa K, et al. Eczematous reactions to food in atopic eczema: position paper of the EAACI and GA2LEN. Allergy. 2007;62(7):723–8.
Palmer CN, Irvine AD, Terron-Kwiatkowski A, Zhao Y, Liao H, Lee SP, et al. Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. Nat Genet. 2006;38(4):441–6.
Marenholz I, Nickel R, Ruschendorf F, Schulz F, Esparza-Gordillo J, Kerscher T, et al. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations predispose to phenotypes involved in the atopic march. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(4):866–71.
van den Oord RA, Sheikh A. Filaggrin gene defects and risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b2433.
Jung T, Stingl G. Atopic dermatitis: therapeutic concepts evolving from new pathophysiologic insights. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(6):1074–81.
Lack G. Epidemiologic risks for food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(6):1331–6.
Rosenlund H, Kull I, Pershagen G, Wolk A, Wickman M, Bergstrom A. Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to allergy: disease-related modification of consumption? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(5):1219–25.
Hollingsworth JW, Maruoka S, Boon K, Garantziotis S, Li Z, Tomfohr J, et al. In utero supplementation with methyl donors enhances allergic airway disease in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118(10):3462–9.
Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T, Juntunen-Backman K, Korpela R, Poussa T, et al. Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(1):192–8.
Randhawa S, Kakuda Y, Wong CL, Yeung DL. Microbial safety, nutritive value and residual pesticide levels are comparable among commercial, laboratory and homemade baby food samples—a pilot study. Open Nutr J. 2012;6:89–96.
Strachan DP. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ. 1989;299(6710):1259–60.
Gern JE, Reardon CL, Hoffjan S, Nicolae D, Li Z, Roberg KA, et al. Effects of dog ownership and genotype on immune development and atopy in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113(2):307–14.
Lodge CJ, Allen KJ, Lowe AJ, Hill DJ, Hosking CS, Abramson MJ, et al. Perinatal cat and dog exposure and the risk of asthma and allergy in the urban environment: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:176484.
Lodrup Carlsen KC, Roll S, Carlsen KH, Mowinckel P, Wijga AH, Brunekreef B, et al. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43214.
Park YB, Mo EK, Lee JY, Kim JH, Kim CH, Hyun IG, et al. Association between pet ownership and the sensitization to pet allergens in adults with various allergic diseases. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2013;5(5):295–300.
Fujimura KE, Johnson CC, Ownby DR, Cox MJ, Brodie EL, Havstad SL, et al. Man’s best friend? The effect of pet ownership on house dust microbial communities. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(2):410–2.
Nermes M, Niinivirta K, Nylund L, Laitinen K, Matomaki J, Salminen S, et al. Perinatal pet exposure, faecal microbiota, and wheezy bronchitis: is there a connection? ISRN Allergy. 2013;2013:827934.
Campo P, Kalra HK, Levin L, Reponen T, Olds R, Lummus ZL, et al. Influence of dog ownership and high endotoxin on wheezing and atopy during infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(6):1271–8.
Bampoe V, Sapsford RJ, Avigad S, Shiner M. Lactase degradation by human enteric bacteria. Lancet. 1979;2(8134):125–7.
Slavin J. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients. 2013;5(4):1417–35.
Prescott SL, Wickens K, Westcott L, Jung W, Currie H, Black PN, et al. Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in pregnancy increases cord blood interferon-gamma and breast milk transforming growth factor-beta and immunoglobin A detection. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38(10):1606–14.
West CE, D’Vaz N, Prescott SL. Dietary immunomodulatory factors in the development of immune tolerance. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2011;11(4):325–33.
Fanaro S, Chierici R, Guerrini P, Vigi V. Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2003;91(441):48–55.
Zhong Y, Priebe MG, Vonk RJ, Huang CY, Antoine JM, He T, et al. The role of colonic microbiota in lactose intolerance. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49(1):78–83.
Zutavern A, von Mutius E, Harris J, Mills P, Moffatt S, White C, et al. The introduction of solids in relation to asthma and eczema. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(4):303–8.
Filipiak B, Zutavern A, Koletzko S, Von BA, Brockow I, Grubl A, et al. Solid food introduction in relation to eczema: results from a four-year prospective birth cohort study. J Pediatr. 2007;151(4):352–8.
Golden B. Nutrition in Infancy. In: Shetty P, editor. Nutrition through the life cycle. London: IBT Global; 2002. p. 15–36.
Fordtran JS. Speculations on the pathogenesis of diarrhoea. Federation Proceedings. 1967;26(5):1405–14.