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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable analyses for infants with food hypersensitivity, IgE-mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity

From: Incidence and risk factors for food hypersensitivity in UK infants: results from a birth cohort study

  All infants will food hypersensitivity (n = 41) compared to control infants
Univariate Multivariable*
Odds ratio (95 % CI) p value Odds ratio (95 % CI) p value
Wheeze, (at initial assessment) 2.120 (0.940–4.782) 0.092 20.591 (1.465–289.341) 0.025
Maternal atopy 5.192 (1.683–16.017) 0.002 87.479 (1.021–7498.366) 0.049
Gestation, weeks 0.756 (0.585–0.978) 0.033 0.171 (0.045–0.642) 0.009
Age at first solids, weeks 0.920 (0.830–0.998) 0.044 0.506 (0.282–0.908) 0.022
Mean infant healthy eating dietary pattern score, arbitrary units 0.365 (0.229–0.583) 0.002 0.155 (0.028–0.868) 0.034
  IgE-mediated (n = 21) compared to control infants Non-IgE-mediated (n = 20) compared to control infants
Univariate Multivariable** Univariate Multivariable**
Odds ratio p Odds ratio p Odds ratio p Odds ratio p
Eczema (at initial assessment) 17.83* (2.89–∞) <0.001 18.67**** (1.03–338.41) 0.048     
Rhinitis (at initial assessment) 3.94 (1.31–11.83) 0.023 4.80**** (1.19–19.36) 0.027 2.96 (0.92–9.52) 0.087   
Maternal atopy 11.54 (1.47–90.35) 0.003       
Vitamin D supplement during pregnancy 8.68*** (0.66–∞) 0.097       
Age at first egg from any source, months 1.05 (1.00–1.11) 0.026 Not included in analysis as likely reverse causality     
Dog in the home 3.24 (1.00–10.48) 0.076    4.37 (1.38–13.80) 0.015 19.49 (1.17–325.93) 0.039
Wheeze associated with upper respiratory tract 2.84 (1.01–7.98) 0.052       
Healthy eating dietary pattern score, arbitrary units 0.36 (0.20–0.66) 0.001 0.32**** (0.16–0.66) 0.012 0.34 (0.19–0.62) <0.001 0.28 (0.09–0.87) 0.028
Maternal age, years      0.87 (0.78–0.99) 0.037   
Paternal age, years      0.893 (0.803–0.992) 0.035   
Maternal food hypersensitivity      2.790 (0.994–7.831) 0.055   
Other household smoking      5.133 (1.32–19.95) 0.023   
Consumed probiotics whilst breastfeeding      3.31 (1.13–9.75) 0.084 45.41 (3.41–604.67) 0.004
Age at first solid, months      0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.021 0.60 (0.40–0.89) 0.011
Milk overlap, months      0.94 (0.88–1.00) 0.037   
Received anti-reflux medication      3.312 (1.13–9.75) 0.030 Not included in analysis as likely reverse causality
  1. Adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals (CI) and p values) are presented for all factors significant in the multivariate model
  2. * Factors associated with hypersensitivity at a p value <0.1 were entered into a multivariable analysis using SPSS. A stepwise backwards selection process was used
  3. ** For multivariable analysis p values are only given for those variables included in the final model
  4. *** Exact logistic regression model used to estimate parameters
  5. **** Firthlogit approach to fit a logistic model by penalized maximum likelihood regression (accessed via STATA)
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