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Table 3 Maternal, parental, perinatal, environmental health and medicinal factors

From: Incidence and risk factors for food hypersensitivity in UK infants: results from a birth cohort study

  Participants with food hypersensitivity (n = 41) Control participants (n = 82) p value
Maternal atopy 36 (87.8 %) 52 (63.4 %) 0.002
Paternal atopy 23 (57.5 %) 50 (61.0 %) 0.844
Mean maternal pre-pregnancy weight, kg 65.9 (14.0) 64.0 (11.5) 0.558
Mean maternal pre-pregnancy height, cm 164.1 (5.9) 165.0 (6.6) 0.690
Median parity 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.729
Singleton pregnancy 40 (97.6 %) 82 (100.0 %) 0.333
Maternal smoking in pregnancy 1 (2.4 %) 3 (3.7 %) 1.000
Other household smoking in pregnancy 8 (19.5 %) 5 (6.1 %) 0.027
Aspirin/paracetamol during pregnancy 30 (81.1 %) 49 (69.0 %) 0.132
Any anti-inflammatory during pregnancy 4 (11.1 %) 7 (9.9 %) 0.542
Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy 9 (22.0 %) 19 (23.3 %) 0.286
Mode of delivery
 Normal 20 (51.3 %) 37 (45.7 %) 0.860
 Caesarean 13 (31.7 %) 20 (24.4 %)
 Forceps 3 (7.3 %) 12 (14.8 %)
Mean gestation, weeks 39.5 (1.7) 40.0 (1.4) 0.062
Mean birth weight, grams 3480 (470) 3370 (562) 0.913
Antibiotics in first week of age 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 1.000
Environmental
 Urban living Environment 8 (19.5 %) 11 (13.4 %) 0.601
 Live on a main road 3 (7.3 %) 5 (6.1 %) 0.535
 Cat at home 10 (24.4 %) 24 (29.3 %) 0.365
 Dog at home 13 (31.7 %) 12 (14.6 %) 0.026
 Mould in home 5 (12.2 %) 8 (9.8 %) 0.457
 Type of flooring where baby sleeps
  Carpet 37 (90.2 %) 72 (87.8 %) 0.757
  Wooden, laminate or parquet 4 (9.8 %) 9 (11.0 %)
  Linoleum or vinyl tiles 0 (0.0 %) 1 (1.2 %)
Type of mattress your baby sleeps on
  Foam 29 (70.7 %) 51 (62.2 %) 0.362
  Synthetic 10 (24.4 %) 22 (26.8 %)
  Other 2 (4.9 %) 9 (11.0 %)
 Cleaning kitchen work surfaces
  Non-bactericidal 12 (29.3 %) 27 (32.9 %) 0.396
  Bactericidal 27 (65.9 %) 50 (61.0 %)
  Neither 1 (2.4 %) 5 (6.1 %)
  Do not know 1 (2.4 %) 0 (0.0 %)
 Cleaning table where you eat
  Spray cleaner 26 (63.4 %) 38 (46.3 %) 0.131
  Soap and Water 10 (24.4 %) 19 (23.2 %)
  Just water 2 (4.9 %) 6 (7.3 %)
  None of these 3 (7.3 %) 19 (23.2 %)
 Pacifier/dummy
  Latex 5 (12.2 %) 8 (9.8 %) 0.202
  Silicon 21 (51.2 %) 32 (39.0 %)
 Attendance at day care or a nursery 13 (31.7 %) 19 (23.2 %) 0.246
 Mean age when started day care or a nursery, months 7.3 (2.19) 8.74 (3.74) 0.269
Health
 Upper respiratory infection
  None 9 (23.7 %) 21 (27.6 %) 0.856
  Occasionally 20 (52.6 %) 36 (47.4 %)
  Often 9 (23.7 %) 19 (25.0 %)
 Lower respiratory infection
  None 34 (89.5 %) 71 (93.4 %) 0.462
  Occasionally 4 (10.5 %) 4 (5.3 %)
  Often 0 (0.0 %) 1 (1.3 %)
 Wheeze with upper respiratory infection
  None 24 (63.2 %) 59 (77.6 %) 0.195
  Occasionally 11 (28.9 %) 15 (19.7 %)
  Often 3 (7.9 %) 2 (2.6 %)
 Bronchiolitis (bronchitis)
  None 36 (94.7 %) 75 (98.7 %) 0.106
  Occasionally 2 (5.3 %) 1 (1.3 %)
  Often 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)
 Middle ear infection
  None 32 (84.2 %) 70 (92.1 %) 0.165
  Occasionally 6 (15.8 %) 6 (7.9 %)
  Often 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0 %)
 Gastrointestinal illness
  None 30 (78.9 %) 69 (90.8 %) 0.125
  Occasionally 7 (18.4 %) 7 (9.2 %)
  Often 1 (2.6 %) 0 (0.0 %)
Medication
 Median number of antibiotics in last 12 months 1 (0–2) 0.5 (0–1) 0.341
 Mean age when first received antibiotics, months 8.65 (7.04) 8.44 (6.59) 0.964
 Received aspirin 1 (2.6 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0.333
 Received paracetamol 38 (100.0 %) 74 (97.4 %) 0.442
 Received anti-inflammatories (e.g. Ibuprofen, Nurofen) 29 (76.3 %) 51 (67.1 %) 0.214
 Received anti-reflux medication 11 (28.9 %) 10 (13.2 %) 0.039
 Received any vaccinations 37 (97.4 %) 73 (96.0 %) 0.565
 Received any skin creams, lotions or powders 33 (86.8 %) 55 (72.4 %) 0.079
  1. Figures are numbers (%) in each group, means (SD) or medians (25th, 75th centiles) unless specified. P values relate to a comparison between cases and control; they represent a Chi squared test for categorical data, Mann–Whitney U test for non-parametric data and two sample t test for parametric data. All data was not available for all participants. Maternal atopy defined as any of maternal asthma, eczema, rhinitis or food allergy
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