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Table 1 Asthma and AR

From: Multi-morbidities of allergic rhinitis in adults: European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Task Force Report

References Study type No. patients Age/Profile Aim of the study Results
Ciprandi et al. [16] Prospective 89 (AR), 940 (controls) Adults Follow up of patients with AR every 2 years for 8 years to investigate spirometric abnormalities/BHR 34 of 89 AR patients developed BHR after 8 years Sensitization to mite, birch and parietaria, as well as rhinitis duration are risk factors
Navarro et al. [17] Epidemiologic prospective; multi centre 942 (with asthma) Mean age: 35.5; 63% female Investigate the link between the upper and lower airways 89.5% had AR Correlation between severity of rhinitis and asthma (p < 0001) and inverse correlation with age (p < 0.0001) and severity of asthma (p < 0.05)
Ko et al. [18] Cross sectional; questionnaire 600 (with asthma) 267 male; 333 female Evaluation of prevalence of AR in asthma 77% of asthmatics had rhinitis in the past 12 months (of whom 96% were previously diagnosed with AR)
      In patients with asthma and rhinitis, 49% use nasal steroids, resulting in fewer ED visits (13 vs 25%) and fewer hospitalizations for asthma (5 vs 13%)
Valero et al. [19] Cross-sectional international population study; based on questionnaire 3225; 1 positive skin test Age range: 10–50; 53% male Evaluation of the link between AR, asthma and skin test sensitization Asthma presents in 49% of AR patients
      Asthma severity was associated with length of time from onset and with allergic rhinitis severity
      Patients with asthma have a higher number of allergen sensitizations and higher sensitization intensity than those without asthma (p < 0.01)