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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome observed in the setting of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS)

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is originally described in association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infected patients. IRIS consists of a broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases, such as infectious inflammatory, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases, that present after starting an effective ART, leading to CD4+ cells increase and plasma HIV-RNA reduction. IRIS reflects either worsening of an already-diagnosed infection or presentation of previously subclinical infection. Opportunistic pathogens include cryptococcus, mycobacterium, herpesviruses, or also auto-antigens. The paradoxical worsening of clinical symptoms as observed in IRIS is also the phenomenon of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS). In the course of DIHS/DRESS, cytomegalovirus diseases and herpes zoster are observed coincidently with the increase in lymphocytes or rapid reduction of systemic corticosteroids. Based on the similar manifestations between IRIS and DIHS/DRESS, DIHS/DRESS can be seen in a broad context as another manifestation of IRIS. Although the mechanisms of IRIS is complex and variable, depending on the latent pathogens and shift of immune status, use of the concept of IRIS can help our recognition of various manifestations that occur in the setting of DIHS/DRESS. The understanding of IRIS may improve the morbidity and mortality rates of DIHS/DRESS.

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Correspondence to Yoko Kano.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Keywords

  • Eosinophilia
  • Herpes Zoster
  • Immune Status
  • Broad Context
  • Systemic Corticosteroid