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Table 1 Reported immunological events contributing to the induction of allergic sensitization by specific pollen sources and individual major pollen allergens

From: Initiating pollen sensitization – complex source, complex mechanisms

  Plant family Plant species   Epithelium + alarmin secretion Oxidative stress Neutrophils TLR4 signaling- DCs expression of surface molecules Induction of Th2 polarization
  Proteolytic activity Non-proteolytic interaction PAR2 interaction TSLP IL-33 IL-25 ROS induction IL-8 expression Dependent? Independent? OX40L ST2 Notch Ligands Capability Insufficiency of major allergens
Tree Betulaceae White birch (Betula verrucosa)   [52, 56, 140, 143]    [61]    [69]   [85]     [95] [94] [94]
Betulaceae Hazelnut (Corylus avellana)                 
Cupressaceae Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)   [56]          [85]      
Cupressaceae Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)   [140]      [79]     [85]      
Cupressaceae Meditereanen cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)   [140]               
Cupressaceae Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei)   [144]       [71]         
Oleaceae Olive tree (Olea europaea)                 
Salicaceae Black poplar (Populus nigra)   [144]       [71]         
Grass Poaceae Timothy grass (Phleum pratense)         [71]         [115]
Poaceae Rye grass (Lolium perenne)   [53]       [71]         
Poaceae Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)   [53, 56, 143]          [85]      
Poaceae Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)   [53]       [71]         
Poaceae Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata)   [144]               
Weed Asteraceae Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)   [54, 55, 140, 145]    [66] [74, 76]   [70] [67] [66, 67] [85] [66] [76]   [66, 76] [116]
Asteraceae Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)      [64]      [84]       
Asteraceae Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)   [143]               
Amaranthaceae Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)         [71]         
Amaranthaceae Burning bush (Kochia scoparia)         [71]         
Amaranthaceae Russian thistle (Salsola kali)     [60]     [71]         
Cannabaceae Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus)         [60]         
Allergen Betulaceae White birch (Betula verrucosa) Bet v 1   [57]              [94]
Oleaceae Olive tree (Olea europaea) Ole e 1   [58]              
Cupressaceae Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Cry j 1    [59]             
Cupressaceae Cypress (Cupressus arizonica) Cup a 1     [75]         [75]    
Poaceae Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) Phl p 5        [115]        [115] [115]
Asteraceae Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Amb a 1               [117] [116]
Asteraceae Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Amb a 11 [112]