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Table 2 Summary of parameters of vitamin D in CSU

From: Relationship between vitamin D and chronic spontaneous urticaria: a systematic review

Outcome measurement Pro Cons Results References
Lower serum vitamin D levels in CSU patients than healthy controls   One study showed significantly higher levels of vitamin D in CSU patients than that of controls Wu et al. [30]
One study showed no significant difference in vitamin D levels between CSU patients and that of controls Lee et al. [22]
  Twelve studies showed significant lower levels of vitamin D in CSU patients than that of controls Thorp et al. [28]
Grzanka et al. [21]
Chandrashekar et al. [20]
Abdel-Rehim et al. [18]
Movahedi et al. [23]
Woo et al. [29]
Rasool et al. [25]
Boonpiyathad et al. [31]
Oguz Topal et al. [24]
Nasiri-Kalmarzi et al. [14]
Dabas et al. [32]
Rather et al. [33]
Vitamin D insufficiency in CSU patients more than in controls   One study showed significantly higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in controls than in CSU Movahedi et al. [23]
  Two studies showed no significant difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency between CSU patients and controls Grzanka et al. [21]
Boonpiyathad et al. [22] [31]
  One study showed significant difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency between CSU patients and controls Oguz Topal et al. [24]
Vitamin D deficiency in CSU patients more than in controls One study showed no significant difference in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between CSU patients and controls Thorp et al. [28]
  Three studies showed significant difference in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between CSU patients and controls Grzanka et al. [21]
Boonpiyathad et al. [31]
Oguz Topal et al. [24]
  One study show significant difference in the proportion of critically low vitamin D levels in the CSU patients and in acute urticaria, atopic dermatitis, and healthy controls Woo et al. [29]
Lower serum vitamin D levels between CSU and acute urticaria   One study showed no significant difference levels of vitamin D between CSU and acute urticaria patients Lee et al. [22]
  One study showed significantly lower levels of vitamin D in CSU than acute urticaria patients Woo et al. [29]
Lower serum vitamin D levels between CSU and atopic dermatitis   One study showed significantly lower levels of vitamin D in CSU than atopic dermatitis Woo et al. [29]
Lower serum vitamin D levels between CSU and allergic rhinitis   One study showed significantly lower levels of vitamin D in CSU than allergic rhinitis Thorp et al. [28]
Low serum vitamin D levels and higher disease activity   One study reported a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score Movahedi et al. [23]
Six studies reported no association Thorp et al. [28]
Abdel-Rehim et al. [18]
Grzanka et al. [21]
Rorie et al. [26]
Boonpiyathad et al. [31]
Oguz Topal et al. [24]
  Three study reported significant negative association between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score
One study reported significant negative association between vitamin D levels and urticaria severity score
Woo et al. [29]
Nasiri-Kalmarzi et al. [14]
Rather et al. [33]
Chandrashekar et al. [20]
Low serum vitamin D levels and longer disease duration Five studies reported no association Thorp et al. [28]
Abdel-Rehim et al. [18]
Grzanka et al. [21]
Dabas et al. [32]
Rather et al. [33]
  One studies reported significant negative association Woo et al. [29]
Low serum vitamin D levels and high ESR   Two study reported significant correlation Chandrashekar et al. [20]
Boonpiyathad et al. [31]
Low serum vitamin D levels and high CRP levels One study reported no association Grzanka et al. [21]
Low serum vitamin D levels and high IgE levels   One study reported negative association Abdel-Rehim et al. [18]
Four studies reported no association Movahedi et al. [23]
Oguz Topal et al. [24]
Nasiri-Kalmarzi et al. [14]
Dabas et al. [32]
Low serum vitamin D levels and high IL-17 levels   One study reported negative association. Chandrashekar et al. [20]
Low serum vitamin D levels and TGF-β1   One study reported negative association Chandrashekar et al. [20]
Low serum vitamin D levels and thyroid autoantibodies testing Two studies reported no association Thorp et al. [28]
Oguz Topal et al. [24]
Low serum vitamin D levels and a positive ASST or APST   One study reported significant lower levels of vitamin D in patients with a positive APST Chandrashekar et al. [20]
  Three study reported significant lower levels of vitamin D in patients with a positive ASST. Woo et al. [29]
Nasiri-Kalmarzi et al. [14]
Rather et al. [33]
Three studies reported no association between the ASST-positive and ASST-negative groups Thorp et al. [28]
Grzanka et al. [21]
Dabas et al. [32]
  1. APST, autologous plasma skin test; ASST, autologous serum skin test; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSU, chronic spontaneous urticaria; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Ig, immunoglobulin; IL, interleukin; TGF-β1, transforming growth factor β1