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Table 2 Possible future targets for the treatment of CSU

From: Looking forward to new targeted treatments for chronic spontaneous urticaria

Target Drug Proposed mechanism of action
NK-1R Aprepitant, tradipitant, serlopitant, orvepitant Small molecules which bind to neurokinin-1 receptors and thus block substance P activity
C5a Eculizumab Reduces mediator release in autoimmune urticaria
H4 receptor JNJ7777120 Reduces histamine mediated itch
TNF-α Etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab Reduces chemotaxis, decrease inflammation, decrease angiogenesis
TSLP Tezepelumab Inhibits release of Th2-cytokines
α4-integrin Natalizumab Inhibits endotelial activation
α4β7-integrin  Vedolizumab Inhibits endotelial activation
β7 integrin RhuMab β7 Inhibits endotelial activation
CD-20 Rituximab, ofatumumab, ocrelizumab Depletes antibody-producing B cells
IL-4Rα Dupilumab, pitrakinra, AMG-317 Reduces IgE production
IL-13 ABT-308, anrukinzumab, IMA-026, lebrikizumab, CNTO,5825, GSK679586, QAX576, tralokinumab Reduces IgE production
IL-5Rα Benralizumab Inhibits eosinophil activation
IL-5 Mepolizumab, reslizumab Inhibits eosinophil activation