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Table 4 The adjusted odds ratios of asthma in adolescence in 617 Norwegian children by weight/BMI SDS and physical activity after backward stepwise selection of potential confounders (one model for each predictor variable)

From: Body mass index and physical activity in early childhood are associated with atopic sensitization, atopic dermatitis and asthma in later childhood

Predictor Outcome variable (final analyses)
Asthma ever by first follow-upa Current asthma at second follow-upb
Age n OR 95 % CI LR-p n OR 95 % CI LR-p
Weight SDS
Birth 580 0.93 (0.72, 1.20) 0.587 439 0.95 (0.71, 1.27) 0.716
BMI SDS
3 months 520 0.88 (0.64, 1.21) 0.437 411 0.96 (0.67, 1.38) 0.835
6 months 536 1.06 (0.79, 1.41) 0.707 425 0.86 (0.61, 1.20) 0.370
1 year 536 1.00 (0.76, 1.32) 0.998 424 0.78 (0.57, 1.08) 0.127
4 yearsc 454 1.09 (0.80, 1.47) 0.596 361 0.91 (0.63, 1.32) 0.627
First follow-upd 558 1.02 (0.79, 1.33) 0.849 426 1.10 (0.81, 1.49) 0.561
Second follow-upd N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 421 1.25 (0.90, 1.72) 0.176
Physical activity
At 3–6 yearse 454    0.014 361    0.475
 Normal 275 1.00 Reference   220 1.00 Reference  
 Low 57 3.61 (1.56, 8.36)   48 1.92 (0.66, 5.59)  
 High 122 1.34 (0.61, 2.97)   93 1.40 (0.55, 3.55)  
At 6–10 yearsf 558    0.038 426    0.177
 Normal 351 1.00 Reference   274 1.00 Reference  
 Low 92 2.52 (1.24, 5.12)   69 1.98 (0.80, 4.85)  
 High 115 1.02 (0.46, 2.28)   83 1.97 (0.83, 4.67)  
  1. First follow-up: 10.8 years (girls) and 11.8 years (boys); Second follow-up: 12.8 years (both sexes)
  2. Italics numbers indicate statistically significant results
  3. n number of participants, OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, LR-p likelihood ratio-test p-value refers to predictor only, BMI body mass index (kg/m2), SDS standard deviation score, N.A. not applicable
  4. aAfter stepwise backward selection, adjusted for sex, gestational age, mother’s preeclampsia and asthma
  5. bAfter stepwise backward selection, adjusted for sex, mother’s preeclampsia and mother’s asthma
  6. cAlso adjusted for physical activity at 3–6 years
  7. dAlso adjusted for physical activity at 6–10 years
  8. eAlso adjusted for BMI SDS at 4 years
  9. fAlso adjusted for BMISDS at the first follow-up