Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Nutritional adequacy of a cows’ milk exclusion diet in infancy

  Milk free group (n = 13) Control group (n = 26) p
Caucasian ethnicity 12 (92.3) 26 (100) 0.333
Female sex 4 (30.7) 11 (42.3) 0.728
Mothers’ mean age, years 32.0 32.4 0.872^
Fathers’ mean age, years 34.2 34.9 0.988^
Highest education of parents    0.598§
 Low (up to 12 years) 3 (23) 8 (30.7)  
 Intermediate (>12 years, e.g. college) 5 (38.5) 6 (23)  
 High (e.g. university) 5 (38.5) 12 (46.1)  
Allergies in family    
 Maternal atopy (A, AR or E)* 11 (84.6) 16 (61.5) 0.269^
 Paternal atopy (A, AR or E)* 7 (53.8) 16 (61.5) 0.736^
 Maternal food hypersensitivity 2 (15.4) 3 (11.5) 1.000^
 Paternal food hypersensitivity 2 (15.4) 7 (26.9) 0.689^
 Urban living environment 2 (15.4) 2 (7.7) 0.589
 Mean number of siblings 0.6 0.3 1.000^
 Mean birth weight (g) 3538 3476 0.738^
 Mean duration breastfeeding (months) 1.75 2.68 0.189^
 Ever breastfed 7 (53.8) 22 (57.8) 0.742
  1. Data are expressed as number (percentage) unless indicated
  2. Chi square test of homogeneity unless indicated
  3. ^Mann–Whitney U test
  4. §ANOVA F test