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Table 3 Evaluation of direct and indirect costs associated with CSU

From: ASSURE-CSU: a real-world study of burden of disease in patients with symptomatic chronic spontaneous urticaria

Evaluation of costs
Data sources
 • Medical record abstraction form
 • Patient survey
Unit costs
 Country-specific unit cost estimates will be applied where available, using standard national sources, e.g.,
 • UK National Health Service Reference Costs
 • German Einheitlicher Bewertungsmaßstab (Uniform Rating Scale)
 • National drug formularies
 • National average wage statistics
Direct health care costs (all CSU-related)
 • Physician visits, including private practice visits
 • Emergency room visits
 • Hospitalizations
 • Therapies (including drugs, alternative medicine and out-of-pocket expenses)
 • Laboratory tests
 • Transportation costs
Indirect costs (employed patients; CSU-related)
 • Lost productivity due to sick leave and early retirement (analyzed using the friction cost approach)
 • Reduced productivity due to reduced performance at work (presenteeism)
  1. CSU chronic spontaneous urticaria