Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of adverse reactions (including GI symptoms) to the different foods among asthmatics (asthma), non-asthmatics (no asthma) and in the total sample (all)

From: Self-reported adverse reactions and IgE sensitization to common foods in adults with asthma

Food % asthma % no asthma % all p Risk ratio
Hazelnut 20.5 7.2 12.2 <0.001 2.83
Apple 17.5 7.15 11.1 < 0.001 2.45
Kiwi 14.3 6.3 9.3 < 0.001 2.27
Walnut 12.8 4.1 7.3 < 0.001 3.15
Milk 11.5 6.9 8.6 0.003 1.67
Peach 10.7 2.4 5.6 < 0.001 4.39
Brazil nut 9.8 3.5 5.9 < 0.001 2.78
Almond 9.5 2.9 5.4 < 0.001 3.30
Nectarine 9.3 1.8 4.7 < 0.001 5.15
Pear 8.85 2.9 5.1 < 0.001 3.09
Plum 8.8 2.45 4.9 < 0.001 3.61
Cherry 8.65 2.65 4.9 < 0.001 3.26
Wine/beer 8 3.8 5.4 < 0.001 2.08
Peanut 7 2.8 4.3 < 0.001 2.63
Shellfish 6.5 3.1 4.4 0.002 2.09
Carrot 6.4 2.3 3.9 < 0.001 2.73
Strawberry 6.4 1.8 3.5 < 0.001 3.53
Apricot 6.3 1.4 3.3 < 0.001 4.52
Sourmilk/yogurt 6.25 3.5 4.55 0.015 1.78
Fried/fat food 5.9 3.3 4.3 0.018 1.79
Potato 5.5 1.2 2.8 < 0.001 4.70
Cheese 4.5 1.7 2.8 0.001 2.65
Others 4.5 3.1 3.6 0.16 1.46
Sweet pepper 4.4 1.9 2.8 0.006 2.28
Chili/tabasco 4.3 1.8 2.8 0.004 2.40
Tomato 4.15 1.9 2.8 0.011 2.18
Orange 3.8 2.8 3.1 0.26 1.38
Banana 3.8 1.1 2.1 < 0.001 3.56
Bean 3.3 1.6 2.2 0.033 2.06
Egg 3.3 1.1 1.9 0.002 3.09
Flour (wheat) 3.3 1.6 2.2 0.033 2.05
Avocado 3.1 0.5 1.5 < 0.001 5.84
Fish 2.9 0.2 1.25 < 0.001 13.80
Cheesea 2.8 0.6 1.5 < 0.001 4.37
Cayenne/red pepper 2.8 1.4 1.9 0.056 2.01
Chocolate 2.8 1.5 2 0.084 1.86
Milka 2.35 1 1.6 0.063 2.15
Pea 2.2 0.4 1.1 0.001 5.27
Additives 1.6 0.4 0.9 0.021 3.66
Curry 1.55 1 1.25 0.41 1.46
Sour milk/yogurta 1.4 0.5 0.9 0.076 2.64
Flour (wheat)b 1.4 0.1 0.6 0.002 12.94
Celery 1.4 0.2 0.7 0.006 6.49
Soy 1.4 0.2 0.7 0.006 6.49
Melon 1.4 0.2 0.65 0.006 6.48
Flour (non wheat) 1.4 0.5 0.85 0.083 2.59
Dried fruit 1.2 0.2 0.6 0.014 5.71
Salami 1 0.4 0.7 0.15 2.44
Pork 1 0.5 0.7 0.26 1.94
Sunflower seed 0.9 0 0.3 0.004 -
Chestnut 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.47 1.65
Flour (non wheat)b 0.7 0 0.3 0.011 -
Chicken 0.7 0.1 0.3 0.054 6.48
Camomile 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.69 1.30
Sesame seed 0.7 0.1 0.3 0.054 6.49
Anise/caraway 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.13 4.86
Beef 0.35 0.3 0.3 0.93 1.08
Lingonberry 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.31 3.25
Coriander 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.73 1.62
Poppy seed 0.2 0 0.1 0.20 -
Parsley 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.86 0.81
  1. P-value was considered significant when <0.05 comparing the self-reported intolerance for the different foods between asthmatics to non-asthmatics
  2. alactose intolerance symptoms excluded
  3. bgluten intolerance symptoms excluded