Prospective validation of the “rhino conjunctivitis allergy-control-SCORE©” (RC-ACS©)
© Häfner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 13 June 2012
Accepted: 2 September 2012
Published: 19 September 2012
Recently we reported the validation of the “Allergy-Control-SCORE© (ACS)” which assesses symptom severity as well as medication use on three dimensions lung, nose and eyes. The aim of this study was to test the validity of the score for eyes and nose.
One-hundred-twenty-one consenting subjects (age 19-65y), including 81 patients with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (RC) and 40 healthy controls, participated in the study. Patients rated daily nasal and eye symptoms using a 4-point scale (none, mild, moderate, and severe) and their use of anti-symptomatic medication. Validation criteria were pollen counts in the course of the study period. Discrimination capacity was analyzed by comparing the rhino-conjunctivitis Allergy-Control-SCORE© (RC-ACS©) values of allergic patients and healthy controls. Convergent reliability was assessed by correlating RC-ACS© values with the global severity of allergy, the quality of life, and the allergy-related medical consultations. Retest reliability was assessed by the correlation of the repeated measured RC-ACS© scores during each of two consecutive weeks.
Convergent reliability analysis indicated a significant correlation between RC-Allergy-Control-SCORE© and global severity of allergy (r = 0.691; p < 0.0001), quality of life (r = 0.757; p < 0.0001) and allergy-related medical consultations (r = 0.329; p = 0.0019). RC-Allergy-Control-SCORE© showed a good retest reliability (r = 0.813; p < 0.001) and discriminated extremely well between allergic patients and healthy controls (Median: 3.7 range: 0; 14.1 vs. Median: 0 range: 0; 2.9; p < 0.001), with a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 92.5% at a score value of 0.786.
The RC-ACS© can be considered as valid and reliable to assess the severity of rhino-conjunctivitis severity in clinical trials and observational studies.
KeywordsSymptom score Medication score Allergic disease Rhino conjunctivitis Symptom severity
Recently we reported the validation of the “Allergy-Control-SCORE© (ACS)” which includes three categories: lung, nose and eyes . Now we report the validation of the score for eyes and nose, only. With this new score we suggest an approach which covers a symptom score, and a medication score, for eyes and nose symptoms and use of symptomatic allergy medication to a combined symptom-medication score (SMS), the Rhino-Conjunctivitis Allergy-Control-Score (RC-ACS©). Such a SMS is recommended to measure the primary outcome of clinical trials on respiratory allergies , and the use is proposed by international regulatory agencies, e.g. European Medicines Agency (EMA) .
With this validation we also report the outcome of the validation of the Eye-Allergy-Control-Score (E-ACS©) and the Nose-Allergy-Control-Score (N-ACS©). The Allergy-Control-Score (ACS©). was used for several years in different clinical trials [4–6]. In these studies the score was used under the synonym, symptom medication score. The E-ACS© and the N-ACS© as well as the RC-ACS© are parts of the Allergy-Control-SCORE©. The RC-ACS© covers drugs used in clinical trials and observational studies.
The concept of validation of the RC-ACS© is based on measuring 1) convergent reliability and 2) retest reliability in allergic patients as well as 3) discrimination capacity in healthy controls and patients with respiratory allergies. Therefore a prospective study was designed which included patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis or both and healthy controls. The convergent reliability was assessed to determine the degree to which the scores of an instrument show a relationship to scores of similar instruments. For this purpose the correlation to the following two instruments and two clinically important disease related health economic measures was assessed: 1) Global Assessment of Severity of Allergy by use of a Rating Scale; 2) Quality of Life (RQLQ); 3) number of medical consultations due to the allergy within the last 12 months; 4) the number of non-productive days due to allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and/or asthma within the last 12 months. Retest reliability is the extent to which scores for patients who have not changed are the same for repeated measurement over time. The retest reliability was determined by correlating the SMS values of the first week with the values of the second week. The discrimination capacity reflects the degree to which the scores of an instrument can discriminate between different patient groups. Discrimination capacity was assessed by comparing the average SMS values of the allergic patients (first week) and the control group, respectively.
The validation of a Rhino-Conjunctivitis Allergy-Control-Score (RC-ACS©) is an important and topical issue in allergy clinical research. It is a relevant instrument to assess rhino-conjunctivitis severity in clinical trials and observational studies. With the validation a formal aspect for reliable use of such an instrument is fulfilled.
This Rhino-Conjunctivitis Allergy-Control-Score (RC-ACS©) introduces the concept of “control of disease (rhino-conjunctivitis)” as this will be the aim when using any therapeutic intervention. The presented score balances symptoms and use of medication and it also considers the influence of treatment on allergic symptoms. Therefore, for calculating the combined symptom medication score, each medication will be assessed e.g. according to the use, the specific effects and the way of administration.
Patients (age 19 to 65 years) were recruited from the outpatient clinic department of “Dermatologikum Hamburg”, Germany, between 21 June and 17 August 2008. Inclusion criteria were: 1) atopic sensitization (SPT positivity to at least one of the following allergens: grass, rye, mugwort pollen, house dust mites) (Allergopharma J. Ganzer KG, Reinbek, Germany); 2) current clinical manifestations of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and/or asthma due to exposure to one of the four allergens listed above; 3) expected natural exposure to the relevant allergens during the study period. Controls were non-atopic volunteers with a negative history for IgE-mediated allergies. The following exclusion criteria were applied to patients and controls: 1) current use of systemic or nasal corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids (>400μg budesonide or >500μg beclomethasone dipropionate per day); 2) long-term prophylactic use of anti-allergic medication with constant dose; 3) current treatment with specific immunotherapy; 4) food allergy; 5) clinically-relevant rhinitis/rhino-conjunctival or respiratory symptoms related to other unidentified causes; 6) vasomotor, drug-induced or other kinds of non-allergic rhinitis/rhino-conjunctivitis; 7) febrile infections or inflammation of the respiratory tract; 8) irreversible secondary alterations of the upper and lower airways (e.g. emphysema, bronchiectasis etc.). The study protocol was discussed with the local Ethics Committee before it was commenced. The committee advised that formal approval was not required, because the study was observational and no changes in treatment were involved. However, written informed consent was received from all patients involved before they were included into the study.
The study was designed as prospective, observational and controlled study. Patients and healthy controls completed a questionnaire on demographic and clinical parameters at recruitment. Scores of individual symptoms and individual medications were documented daily during the pollen season over a period of 2 weeks in patients and 1 week in healthy controls, respectively. On each day, patients and controls were also asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire for a “Global Assessment of Severity of Allergy”. This was performed through a Visual Rating Scale (rating scale ranging from 1 = no symptoms at all to 10 = very severe symptoms), which is similar to the one described by Bousquet and colleagues . At the end of the first week, patients completed a validated questionnaire to rate their quality of life (RQLQ©) . Participants started at different times during the season, so that both study groups included subjects that were exposed to high or low pollen counts. In addition, patients were asked how many days they were incapable of working due to their allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and/or asthma within the last 12 months (number of non-productive day).
Characteristics of the Rhino-conjunctivitis allergy control score (RC-ACS) © , according to the GA2LEN recommendations
Rhino-Conjunctivitis Allergy Control Score (RC-ACS©)
Kettner J., Narkus A., Häfner D.
To objectively monitor severity of allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis
Adult and adolescent patients with allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis
German, Polish and others
Number of items
7 symptoms and 745 drugs
Scaling of items
Scoring of items
List of items
Minimal important difference
To be determined
Validation and use in different clinical trials
Allergopharma Joachim Ganzer KG
Häfner D. Medical Department Allergopharma J. Ganzer KG, Hermann-Körner-Str. 52 21465 Reinbek e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Example for the calculation of the medication score (combination of topical and systemic drugs)
No. of admin.
SP* per admin.
The RC-ACS© is obtained by adding the daily medication score to the daily symptom score leading to a range of 0 to 42 SP. Similarly, the N-ACS© as well as the E-ACS© is calculated. The daily E-ACS© and N-ACS© range from 0 to 18 SP and 0 to 24 SP, respectively.
Assessment of pollen counts according to the definition of the German Meteorological Service
Background and demographic characteristics of subjects are summarized for both groups. Continuous variables are displayed by sample size, mean, median, standard deviation and range. Discrete variables are shown with frequencies and percentages. Missing SMS values were replaced by linear interpolation if at most 25% of the values were missing. Regarding all other parameters, the last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) method was applied. Data management and statistical analysis were performed using the statistical analysis program SPSS Version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA).
Validation of the RC-ACS©
The dataset was analyzed to measure the convergent reliability, discrimination capacity, and retest reliability, as follows.
Convergent reliability is the degree to which the scores of an instrument show a relationship to scores of similar instruments. The convergent reliability of the RC-ACS© and the total N-ACS© as well as the total E-ACS© was tested by correlating the average SMS value of week 1 with the following four parameters: 1) Global Assessment of Severity of Allergy (Rating Scale 1–10); 2) Quality of Life (RQLQ); 3) number of medical consultations due to the allergy within the last 12 months; 4) the number of non-productive days due to allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and/or asthma within the last 12 months. Spearman’s rank correlations were calculated for each of the criteria 1 to 4. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05, two-tailed) was considered as evidence for convergent validity. This corresponds in this study to a medium effect size (r ≥ 0.30) which can be regarded as a considerable correlation .
The discrimination capacity is the degree to which the scores of an instrument can discriminate between different patient groups.
Discrimination capacity of the RC-ACS© and the total N-ACS© as well as the total E-ACS© was assessed by comparing the average SMS values of the allergic patients (first week) and the control group, respectively. Discrimination capacity was assumed to be good if the SMS value in the allergy group was significantly higher (p < 0.05, two-tailed) than the SMS value of the control group. Significance testing was performed with the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed by a ROC-curve.
Retest Reliability is the extent to which scores for patients who have not changed are the same for repeated measurement over time. The retest reliability was determined for the patient group only, by correlating the SMS values of the first week with the values of the second week. Comparisons were conducted using Spearman’s rank correlations.
Socio-demographic and clinical data
Socio-demographic data of the patient and control group
(n = 81)
(n = 40)
M ± SD
M ± SD
30.4 ± 9.7
35.5 ± 9.1
172.3 ± 8.6
173.1 ± 9.6
68.0 ± 14.7
74.8 ± 18.9
Medical history data of the patient group
Type I Allergy to
Duration of Allergy (years)
M ± SD
Any allergy disorder
12.8 ± 8.7
13.7 ± 9.2
15.1 ± 9.7
15.0 ± 8.6
11.8 ± 7.2
Severity of symptoms in allergic patients vs. healthy controls
Severity of allergy in allergic patients vs. healthy controls
Mean ± SD
Mean ± SD
4.3 ± 3.0
3.7 [0.0; 14.1]
0.2 ± 0.5
0.0 [0.0; 2.9]
1.2 ± 1.3
0.9 [0.0; 5.1]
0.0 ± 0.2
0.0 [0.0; 1.0]
3.0 ± 2.1
3.0 [0.0; 9.0]
0.1 ± 0.3
0.0 [0.0; 1.9]
Global Assessment of Severity of Allergy (Rating Scale 1-10)
3.6 ± 1.6
3.6 [1.0; 7.1]
1.1 ± 0.2
1.0 [1.0; 2.3]
Quality of Life (RQLQ total score)
1.9 ± 1.1
1.8 [0.2; 4.1]
Medical Consultations due to allergy in the last 12 months
1.7 ± 2.5
1.0 [0.0; 12.0]
Non-productive days due to allergy in the last 12 months
0.6 ± 2.5
0.0 [0.0; 15.0]
Discrimination capacity of the RC-ACS©
Convergent reliability of the RC-ACS©
Correlation of the RC-ACS © , E-ACS © and N-ACS © with further assessment tools for the severity of allergy
Global Assessment of Severity of Allergy (Rating Scale 1–10)
Quality of Life (RQLQ total score)
Medical Consultations due to allergy in the last 12 months
Non-productive days due to allergy in the last 12 months
Re-test reproducibility of RC-ACS© over time
Re-test reliability of RC-ACS © , E-ACS © and N-ACS ©
Mean ± SD
Mean ± SD
4.3 ± 3.0
4.0 ± 3.1
1.2 ± 1.3
1.2 ± 1.3
3.0 ± 2.1
2.9 ± 2.2
This study evaluated the validity of the RC-ACS©, a symptom-medication score which assesses severity of nasal and ocular allergy by considering symptoms and intake of anti-allergic medication. RC-ACS© is reliable, reproducible, and feasible because: 1) the convergent reliability analysis showed highly significant correlations with Global Assessment of Allergy Severity, Quality of Life, and the number of medical consultations due to allergy within the past year; 2) it discriminated significantly between patient and control groups (p < 0.001); 3) it showed good retest reliability; 4) it had an excellent sensitivity (93.8%) and specificity of (92.5%) in discriminating between patients and healthy controls. Thus, the RC-ACS© is considered as a reliable and valid instrument evaluating severity of symptoms of nasal and ocular allergies. The same holds also true for the elements of the RC-ACS© i.e. the N-ACS© and the E-ACS©.
Peculiarities of the RC-ACS©
RC- ACS© is based on scoring nose and ocular symptoms and use of symptomatic medications. It includes a full list of relevant drugs, i.e. without any limitation in drugs. Each score can be used separately or combined. Thus, RC-ACS© can be used in daily practice and real-life situations. Of note is the fact that, as with the ACS©, the RC-ACS© balances impact of symptoms and drugs. Although with this RC-ACS© a recommendation of the EMA guideline  can be met, it has to be considered that rhino-conjunctivitis can precede asthma  and often patients have both rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma . Thus it is important to collect also lung symptoms in order to make assessments on development of asthma.
The combination of symptom and medication score
The RC-ACS© and the subscores E-ACS© and N-ACS© combine scoring of symptoms and medication by summing up both. For the symptom score and medication score separately, the retest reliability and discrimination power were excellent (data not shown). In contrast to the combined use of “Average Rhinoconjunctivitis Total Symptom Score” (ARTSS) and “Average Rescue Medication Score (ARMS)”  which has been specifically designed considering WAO recommendations , the RC-ACS© weights rescue medication, and balances rescue medication and symptoms. The advantage of the RC-ACS© is the individual scoring of each medication according to their ACT class, based on efficacy, mode of action, mode of administration, and duration of action.
A visual analog scale as used by Bousquet and colleagues  seems to be an easy to use instrument to assess efficacy of e.g. specific immunotherapy. However, nowadays a visual analog scale as used by Bousquet and colleagues  will no longer be accepted by health authorities to achieve approval for new medications especially if used for specific immunotherapy because the EMA guideline  states that “…the primary endpoint has to reflect both, symptom severity as well as the intake of rescue medication”. The present article does not claim to have a comprehensive discussion of all available instruments. For this purpose the authors would like to refer to a recently published review on such instruments by Pfaar and colleagues .
RC- ACS© is available in German, English, Polish and other languages. Translation to other languages may be possible. The Medication Score can be used worldwide because use of ATC codes guarantees that even country-specific therapies can be coded.
This study shows that the RC-ACS© is a valid and reliable diagnostic tool, for assessing, and monitoring allergy severity. It considers both, symptoms and allergy medication. The structure is robust enough for using it in clinical trials and daily clinical practice. Therefore, with this validated RC-ACS© there is a tool available which focuses only on rhino conjunctivitis. However, it has to be noted that the full picture of an allergic patient cannot be assessed without collecting data on lung function. With this paper we want to take the opportunity for opening a discussion on validation of such instruments and how it may be performed in the future and how it can be improved.
Anatomical therapeutic chemical
Average rhino conjunctivitis total symptom score
Average rescue medication score
European medicines agency
Rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire©
Receiver operating characteristics
Symptom medication score.
- Häfner D, Reich K, Matricardi PM, Meyer H, Kettner J, Narkus A: Prospective validation of ‘Allergy-Control-SCORETM: a novel symptom–medication score for clinical trials. Allergy. 2011, 66: 629-636. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02531.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canonica GW, Baena-Cagnani CE, Bousquet J, Bousquet PJ, Lockey RF, Malling HJ, Passalacqua G, Potter P, Valovirta E: Recommendations for standardization of clinical trials with Allergen Specific Immunotherapy for respiratory allergy. A statement of a World Allergy Organization (WAO) taskforce. Allergy. 2007, 62: 317-324. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01312.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- European Medicines Agency CHMP/EWP/18504/2006): Guideline on the clinical development of products for specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases. 2008, European Medicines Agency (EMEA): Committee for Medicinal Products of Human Use (CHMP)Google Scholar
- Corrigan CJ, Kettner J, Doemer C, Cromwell O, Narkus A: Efficacy and safety of preseasonal-specific immunotherapy with an aluminium-adsorbed six-grass pollen allergoid. Allergy. 2005, 60: 801-807. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00790.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pfaar O, Klimek L: Efficacy and safety of specific immunotherapy with a high-dose sublingual grass pollen preparation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008, 100: 256-263. 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60451-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klimek L, Mewes T, Wolf H, Hansen I, Schnitker J, Mann WJ: The effects of short-term immunotherapy using molecular standardized grass and rye allergens compared with symptomatic drug treatment on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms, skin sensitivity, and specific nasal reactivity. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005, 133: 538-543. 10.1016/j.otohns.2005.07.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bousquet PJ, Combescure C, Neukirch F, Klossek JM, Méchin H, Daures JP, Bousquet J: Visual analog scales can assess the severity of rhinitis graded according to ARIA guidelines. Allergy. 2007, 62: 367-372. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01276.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Juniper EF, Guyatt GH: Development and testing of a new measure of health status for clinical trials in rhinoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 1991, 21: 77-83. 10.1111/j.1365-2222.1991.tb00807.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baiardini I, Bousquet PJ, Brzoza Z, Canonica GW, Compalati E, Fiocchi A: The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network: Recommendations for assessing patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life in clinical trials on allergy: a GA2LEN taskforce position paper. Allergy. 2010, 65: 290-295. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02263.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen J: Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 1988, Hillsdale, New York: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
- Melioli G, Marcomini L, Agazzi A, Bazurro G, Tosca M, Rossi GA, Minale P, Rossi R, Reggiardo G, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G: The IgE repertoire in children and adolescents resolved at component level: A cross-sectional study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012, 23: 433-440. 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01228.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A, Zuberbier T, Baena-Cagnani CE, Canonica GW, van Weel C: Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 Update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA2LEN and AllerGen). Allergy. 2008, 63 (Suppl. 86): 8-160.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clark J, Shall R: Assessment of combined symptom and medication scores for rhinconjunctivitis immunotherapy clinical trials. Allergy. 2007, 62: 1023-1028. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01469.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pfaar O, Kleine-Tebbe J, Hörmann K, Klimek L: Allergen-specific immunotherapy: Which outcome measures are useful in monitoring clinical trials?. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2011, 31: 289-309. 10.1016/j.iac.2011.02.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.