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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the study patients

From: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial to improve inhaler technique using mHealth

  Total (n = 70) Application (n = 37) Leaflet (n = 33)
Age in years, median (Q1–Q3) 64 (55–73) 66 (56–73) 63 (47–72)
Female, n (%) 39 (56) 20 (54) 19 (58)
BMI in kg/m², mean (SD) 26 (5) 26 (4) 27 (5)
Asthma, n (%) 31 (44) 18 (49) 13 (39)
COPD, n (%) 27 (39) 16 (43) 11 (33)
ACO, n (%) 12 (17) 3 (8) 9 (27)
Time since diagnosis in years, median (Q1–Q3) 13 (5–28) 15 (7–29) 10 (4–31)
Never smoker, n (%) 24 (34) 12 (32) 12 (36)
Past smoker, n (%) 32 (46) 18 (49) 14 (42)
Current smoker, n (%) 14 (20) 7 (19) 7 (21)
Pack-years among ever smokers, median (Q1-Q3) 30 (11–42) 31 (20–48) 26 (8–36)
Primary education, n (%) 11 (16) 4 (11) 7 (21)
Lower secondary education, n (%) 17 (24) 11 (30) 6 (18)
Upper secondary education, n (%) 22 (31) 14 (38) 8 (24)
Higher education (Non-university), n (%) 14 (20) 5 (14) 9 (27)
Higher education (University), n (%) 6 (9) 3 (8) 3 (9)
Allergy, n (%) 41 (59) 22 (59) 19 (58)
Chronic bronchitis, n (%) 37 (53) 21 (57) 16 (48)
Influenza vaccination, n (%) 44 (63) 22 (59) 22 (67)
≥ 1 exacerbation in preceding year, n (%) 34 (49) 12 (32) 22 (67)
≥ 1 severe exacerbation in preceding year, n (%) 8 (11) 4 (11) 4 (12)
≥ 1 course of antibiotics in preceding year, n (%) 46 (66) 21 (57) 25 (76)
≥ 1 course of oral corticosteroids in preceding year, n (%) 28 (40) 12 (32) 16 (48)
Handgrip strength dominant hand in kg, mean (SD) 30 (11) 31 (12) 29 (9)
1 inhaler, n (%) 24 (34) 15 (41) 9 (27)
2 inhalers, n (%) 31 (44) 13 (35) 18 (55)
3 inhalers, n (%) 13 (19) 9 (24) 4 (12)
4 inhalers, n (%) 2 (3) 0 (0) 2 (6)
DPI(s), n (%) 30 (43) 19 (51) 11 (33)
MDI(s), n (%) 8 (11) 3 (8) 5 (15)
SMI(s) (combinations), n (%) 11 (16) 3 (8) 8 (24)
DPI + MDI, n (%) 21 (30) 12 (32) 9 (27)
Single device, n (%) 38 (54) 22 (59) 16 (48)
SABA, n (%) 11 (16) 5 (14) 6 (18)
SABA/SAMA, n (%) 22 (31) 12 (32) 10 (30)
ICS, n (%) 2 (3) 1 (3) 1 (3)
LABA, n (%) 2 (3) 1 (3) 1 (3)
ICS/LABA, n (%) 36 (51) 19 (51) 17 (52)
LABA/LAMA, n (%) 7 (10) 5 (14) 2 (6)
ICS/LABA/LAMA, n (%) 23 (33) 11 (30) 12 (36)
Oral (leukotriene receptor antagonist or theophylline), n (%) 13 (19) 8 (22) 5 (15)
ACT score among asthma/ACO patients, median (Q1-Q3) 19 (13–23) 20 (14–24) 18 (13–22)
CAT score among COPD/ACO patients, median (Q1–Q3) 16 (10–22) 14 (10–21) 18 (11–24)
  1. BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ACO, asthma-COPD overlap; DPI, dry powder inhaler; MDI, metered-dose inhalers; SMI, soft mist inhalers; SABA, short-acting β2-agonist, SAMA, short-acting muscarinic antagonist; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist; ACT, Asthma Control Test; CAT, COPD Assessment Test
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