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Table 2 Immunomodulatory activities of various pollen matrix-derived components promoting allergic sensitization

From: Initiating pollen sensitization – complex source, complex mechanisms

  Plant family Plant species Epithelium DCs Neutrophil and eosinophil activation/attraction Increased reactivity in SPT Enhanced IgE production by B cells Airway inflammation
Barrier permeability IL-8 secretion Maturation CD1d upregulation for interaction with NKT cells Inhibition of LPS-induced IL-12 secretion Notch ligands regulation Inhibition of endosomal cathepsin proteases
Tree Betulaceae White birch (Betula verrucosa      Adenosine [129]; PPE1 [51, 135, 136] LMW fraction [95] PPE1 [120] PALMs [132,133,134] PALMs [49]   
Cupressaceae Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)     Lipids [128]        
Oleaceae Olive tree (Olea europaea)     Lipids [127]        
Grass Poaceae Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) Adenosine [138] Flavonoid isorham-netin [138] Gram-positive bacteria [126] Phospholipids [50]     PALMs [132,133,134]    
Poaceae Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata)          Plant virus [123]   
Weed Asteraceae Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)         Adenosine [116]   PPE1 [137] Adenosine [116]
  1. LMW low molecular weight, LPS lipopolysaccharide, PALMs pollen-associated lipid mediators, PPE1 phytoprostane E1, SPT skin prick test