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Table 5 Overview of results from studies of airborne dust, endotoxin, (1 → 3)-β-d-glucan and allergen levels within farm workplaces. Personal exposure levels from the inhalable and/or total fraction are summarized except when indicated

From: Respiratory diseases and allergy in farmers working with livestock: a EAACI position paper

Environment Dust (EU m−3) Endotoxin (EU m−3) (1 → 3)-β-d-glucan (ng m−3) Allergens (U m−3)
Range of means (individual concentrations) References Range of means (individual concentrations) Analytical method References Range of means (individual concentrations) Analytical method References Agent Range of means (individual concentrations) Analytical method References
Livestock farming
Pig farming 0.83–5 (< LOD–76.7) [10, 126, 129, 155,156,157] 400–3400 (< LOD–374,000) KC/T-LAL, rFC [10, 126, 129, 156, 157] 223 (6–5208) Glucatell (Factor G LAL) [157]     
      NR (33–410) SI-EIA [158]     
      NR (18–96) Glucatell (Factor G LAL) [158]     
 Dairy farming 0.6–2.4 (< LOD-9.8) [10, 119, 129, 130, 135, 159,160,161,162] 220–1570 (< LOD–8290) KC/T-LAL, rFC [10, 119, 129, 130, 135, 159,160,161,162] 10,300 (150–232,000) SI-EIA [135] Bovine allergen 1.39 (0.1–46.8) ELISA [114]
 Poultry farming, non-specific 6.5–7.0 (0.02–81.3) [156, 163] 2576 (190–16,348) KC/T-LAL [156] NR (13–5000) Glucatell (Factor G LAL) [158]     
      NR (2–972) SI-EIA [158]     
 Poultry farming, layers 2.4–9.6 (1.6–14) [129, 162, 164, 165] 694–7517 (1162–19,745) KC/T-LAL, rFC [129, 162, 164, 165]        
Poultry farming, broilers 2.2–11.2 (4–4.4) [162, 164] 596–9609 (61–8120) KC/T-LAL [162, 164]        
 Mink farming 1.3 (0.5–2.3) [129] 214 (93–1050) KC/T-LAL [129]        
 Mixed livestock production farming 0.54–1.9 (0.4–8.9) [129, 160] 448 (< LOD-2910) KC/T-LAL [129]        
 Horse keeping/farming 1.4 (0.2–9.5) [116] 742 (92–9846) KC/T-LAL [116] 9500 (< LOD–631,000) SI-EIA [116] Horse allergen ELISA 438–4300 (286–6272)*# [117, 118]
  1. NR not reported, LOD limit of detection, LAL limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, KC/T-LAL kinetic and/or turbidimetric chromogenic LAL assay, rFC recombinant factor C assay, SI-EIA specific inhibition enzyme-linked immuno assay, Glucatell glucatell modification of the LAL assay, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  2. * Transformed from U mg−3 assuming 1 U = 1 ng
  3. #Stationary measurements