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Table 4 Bioaerosol-components in farming environment

From: Respiratory diseases and allergy in farmers working with livestock: a EAACI position paper

Substance Method of determination
Allergens Antibody-based assays (sandwich) ELISA
Bacteria and Vira Viable sampling, microscopic analysis of samples, Non culture-based microbiological markers or surrogate markers such as endotoxin (Gram negatives), muramic acid (Gram positives) DNA or RNA based molecular methods ranging from qPCR to 16S microbiome or full metagenomic analysis C
Endotoxin Classical “LAL-test” (kinetic chromogenic test) or recombinant factor C assay
Beta(1 → 3) glucan Factor G pathway of the LAL-test or poly-/monoclonal antibody assays (ELISA)
Pyrogenic activity Whole blood assay (outcome: IL-1β, IL-6 release)
Moulds Cultivation of fungi Non culture-based microbiological marker Surrogate markers like ergosterol or extra-cellular polysaccharides specific for Pen/Asp (EPS) DNA or RNA based molecular methods ranging from qPCR to ITS or full metagenomic analysis
Fungal fragments Non-gonomorphic particles (Halogen immunoassay)
Mycotoxins ELISA LC–MS (indirect assessment by analyzing settle dust) Biomonitoring