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Table 2 Risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD and lung function decline in farmers working with large animals: studies from 2000

From: Respiratory diseases and allergy in farmers working with livestock: a EAACI position paper

References/country Study design Subjects (n) Participation rate (%) Age (years) Animal exposure Methods for defining chronic bronchitis Methods for defining bronchial obstruction Risk factors Chronic bronchitis OR in exposed to large animals (95% CI) unless otherwise stated Bronchial obstruction/COPD OR in exposed to large animals (95% CI) unless otherwise stated
Iversen and Dahl [30] Denmark 2000 Longitudinal
FU = 7 years
177 76 43
Baseline
Swine confinement and dairy farmers Not done Lung function§ Work exclusively with pigs or dairy Not done Swine confinement farmers: accelerated decline in FEV1 53 mL year−1 vs. 36 mL year−1 in dairy non-smoking farmers, (p = 0.02)
Chaudemanche et al. [31]/France 2003 Longitudinal
FU = 6 years
215 81 52
FU
Dairy farmers Questionnaire Lung function§ Chronic bronchitis and bronchial obstruction: dairy farming Higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis in dairy farmers (7.5%) than in controls (1.8%, p < 0.02)
PRR = 4.2
Decline in FEV1/VC ratio was significantly higher in dairy farmers than in controls -0.3 (SE 0.13) year−1 in a multiple linear regression correcting for smoking height, age, sex and altitude and initial value
Gainet et al. [32]/France 2007 Longitudinal
FU = 12 years
157 farmers
159 controls
77
Calculated
51
FU
Dairy farmers   Lung function§    Farming
Accelerated decline in FEV1/VC -1.2 ± 0.07% year−1 (p < 0.01)
Corr. smoking height, age, sex and altitude
Thaon et al. [22]/France 2011 Longitudinal
FU = 12 years
219
LF: 157
83 58
FU
Dairy farmers Questionnaire Lung function decline inFEV1/FV§ Usual morning phlegm: handling hay, straw and animal feed Dairy farming: Morning phlegm: 4.3 (1.4–13) chronic bronchitis: 4.7 (0.5–41) Dairy farming
Accelerated decline in FEV1/FVC -0.21 ± 0.08% year−1 (p = 0.01)
Animal feed: Accelerated decline in FEV1 9.12 ± 4.7 ml year−1 (p = 0.05) Corr. For smoking height, age, sex and altitude
Bolund et al. [29]/Denmark 2015 Longitudinal
FU = 15 yrs
1134 52 18.7 baseline Farmers
Swine and or dairy
Interview lln§ Dairy, swine, LPS, Dust
Farm upbringing
Not done Current farming
Accelerated decline in z-scores
∆FEV1 − 0.12 (− 0.2 to − 0.1) year−1 and ∆FEV1/FVC − 0.15 (− 0.3 to − 0.04) year−1. Corrected for smoking, second hand smoking, sex, being raised on a farm, baseline BHR and follow-up BMI
Farm upbringing protective for decline in ∆FEV1 & ∆FEV1/FVC
Magarolas et al. [21]/Spain 2000 Cross-sectional 808 68 Not stated Sheep workers
Dairy farming
Questionnaire Not done Dairy farming Chronic bronchitis: dairy farming 1.8 (1.1–2.9) Not done
Kimbell-Dunn et al. [24]/New Zealand 2001 Cross-sectional 1706 78 Not stated Beef/dairy cattle farmers 75%*
Sheep 50%*
Horses 15%
Postal questionnaire Not done Chronic bronchitis: horses, smoking, atopy Chronic bronchitis: working with horses 1.6 1.1–2.5) Not done
Radon and Winter [17]/Germany 2003 Cross-sectional 325 82 50 Sheep and other animals 37%
Sheep shearing 24%
Use of sheep dip 27%
Use of chemical footbaths 66%
Questionnaire Not done Chronic bronchitis: sheep breeding
ODTS: sheep breeding & footbaths
Chronic bronchitis: full time farmers 1.9 (0.9–3.9) Not done
Monsò et al. [26]/Europe 2004 Cross-sectional 105 non-smokers 85 45 Confinement buildings: Pig farmers 78%*
Beef/veal f. 30%*
Dairy f. 22%*
Poultry f. 31%*
Questionnaire Lung function COPD: organic dust (dose–response relationship) Not reported COPD in non-smoking farmers working inside confinement buildings: organic dust 6.6 (1.1–39.5)
Schenker et al. [19]/USA 2005 Cross- sectional 1947
1751 m
196 f
80 by contact
43 by target pop
54 m
54f
Livestock 13% Questionnaire Not done   Chronic bronchitis prevalence: female swine farmers 3.9%
Asthma related to livestock last 12 months 12%
 
Senthilselvan et al. [23]/Canada 2007 Cross-sectional 374 70 36 Full time swine farmers Questionnaire Lung function Chronic bronchitis: full time swine farming and female sex Chronic bronchitis: Female sw farmers 4.3 (1.9–9.7)
Male sw farmers 3.2 (1.8–5.9)
No differences in lung function among swine farmers and controls and among females and males
Gallagher et al. [25]/NZ 2007 Cross-sectional 475
318
72
64
53.3
49.4
475 horse trainers
318 vegetable growers
Questionnaire Not done Chronic bronchitis Chronic bronchitis prev. 8 vs 3%
OR for CB increased in horse tr
2.3 (1.1–5.2) c f age, gender, smoking, family history of atopic conditions, and dust exposures outside of work
 
Eduard et al. [20]/Norway 2009 Cross-sectional 4469 90 15–29 years 1496
30–49 years 1647
50–70 years 1326
Livestock farmers Questionnaire Lung function Livestock farming, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide dust and atopy Chronic bronchitis: 1.9 (1.4–2.6) COPD: 1.4 (1.1–2.6)
FEV1 was significantly reduced
Elfman et al. [143]/2009 Sweden 2009 CS Tox 13 ??   Horse grooms visited 3 times spring–summer spring 2004–2005 Questionnaire NAL Too small to see effects    
Tual et al. [144]/France 2013 Cross-sectional 14,441 99 65 Cattle farmers 68%*
Poultry f. 30%*
Pigs f. 24%*
Questionnaire Not done Cattle raising
Small-scale cattle raising
Chronic bronchitis: cattle farmers 1.2 (1.03–1.5)
Non-smoking cattle farmers 1.5 (1.1–5.9)
Not done
Viegas et al. [145]/Poland 2013 Cross-sectional 33
70
   Swine barn workers
Persons with no ag work
Interviews   Swine barns Asthma n = 3 (12%)
Wheezing n = 10 (35%)
Coughing n = 12 (41%)
Dose response for symptoms
Not done
Rodriquez et al. [146]/USA 2014 Cross-sectional 450 Hispanics na 22–70 Hired farm workers Interview Lung function Farming Dairy farming  
Mitchell et al. [147]/USA 2015 Cross-sectional   205
45
91
92
Parlor workers
Processing plant (pepper) Workers
Questionnaire Lung function    Years worked in agr associated with ↓ FEV1/FEV6
Guillien et al. [28]/France 2016 Cross sectional 3787 41 40–75 Cattle breeders
Swine breeders
Poultry breeders
Breeders of 2 + livestock types
Questionnaire Lung function Animal farming
Geographical area
Not reported COPD: cattle 1.8 (1.1–3.0)
Swine 2.3 (1.1–4.9)
Poultry 2.6 (1.0–4.1)
Marescaux et al. [27]/France 2016 Cross sectional 590 72 COPD lln
− 53.9
+ 59.0
Dairy farmers Doubs region Questionnaire Lung function Farm size and modernity
Smoking (sm)
Not reported COPD lln
Traditional Farm 5.20 (1.73–15.6)
Interaction analysis
Non-sm/modern 1
Sm/modern 1.33 (0.2–10)
Non-sm/trad 5.39 (1.2–25)
Sm/trad 8.29 (1.9–37)
Nonnenmann et al. [148]/USA 2017 Cross sectional 62 na 32 [10] Milking cows Interview Not done    
  1. Lln lower limit of normal, na not available, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OR odd ratio, PRR proportional reporting ratio, FU follow up period, LPS Lipopolysaccharides
  2. * Not mutually exclusive
  3. §No post dilatation lung function performed