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Table 2 Epinephrine Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Each Treatment Group Stratified by STMD and Sex

From: Epinephrine delivery via EpiPen® Auto-Injector or manual syringe across participants with a wide range of skin-to-muscle distances

Parameter, mean (SD)aLow STMD (< 15 mm, n = 12)bModerate STMD (15–20 mm, n = 12)bHigh STMD (> 20 mm; n = 11)b
Male (n = 6)Female (n = 6)All (n = 12)Male (n = 6)Female (n = 6)All (n = 12)Male (n = 5)Female (n = 6)All (n = 11)
 EpiPen at the mid-AL thigh (n = 35)
  Cpeak, ng/mL0.40 (0.10)0.64 (0.37)0.52 (0.29)0.48 (0.30)0.52 (0.23)0.50 (0.25)0.42 (0.21)0.63 (0.31)0.53 (0.28)
  AUC0-t, ng min/mL27.3 (10.4)28.8 (8.9)28.1 (9.3)20.9 (7.4)31.7 (15.9)26.3 (13.1)31.1 (13.3)40.3 (13.1)36.1 (13.4)
 Median tpeak (range), min17 (9–30)5 (3–60)9 (3–60)4.5 (2–30)15 (3–39)10.5 (2–39)30 (24–120)24.5 (9–60)30 (9–120)
 IM syringe at the mid-AL thigh (n = 35)
  Cpeak, ng/mL0.25 (0.09)0.36 (0.10)0.31 (0.10)0.32 (0.15)0.37 (0.07)0.35 (0.11)0.27 (0.10)0.51 (0.24)0.40 (0.22)
  AUC0-t, ng min/mL20.1 (8.7)28.8 (6.8)24.4 (8.7)25.7 (8.7)28.1 (10.1)26.9 (9.1)22.6 (13.1)30.6 (13.8)27.0 (13.4)
  Median tpeak (range), min50 (25–60)40 (25–50)40 (25–60)49.5 (3–60)45 (6–50)45 (3–60)50 (30–60)50 (6–60)50 (6–60)
 EpiPen at the distal-AL thigh (n = 23)
  Cpeak, ng/mL0.36 (0.26)0.49 (0.32)0.42 (0.28)0.30 (0.11)0.46 (0.21)0.39 (0.19)
  AUC0-t, ng min/mL22.5 (6.9)26.9 (15.5)24.7 (11.7)25.1 (10.4)37.4 (11.9)31.8 (12.4)
  Median tpeak (range), min29.5 (3–60)25 (9–40)25 (3–60)30 (25–60)9 (6–40)25 (6–60)
  1. AL anterolateral, AUC0-t area under the epinephrine plasma concentration–time curve to the last measurable concentration, Cpeak peak epinephrine plasma concentration, EpiPen EpiPen Auto-Injector, IM intramuscular, SD standard deviation, STMD skin-to-muscle distance, tpeak time to Cpeak
  2. aUnless otherwise noted
  3. bBased on maximum compression of STMD