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Table 1 Baseline Demographics of Healthy Volunteers

From: Epinephrine delivery via EpiPen® Auto-Injector or manual syringe across participants with a wide range of skin-to-muscle distances

Parameter, mean (SD)aLow STMD (< 15 mm; n = 12)bModerate STMD (15–20 mm; n = 12)bHigh STMD (> 20 mm; n = 11)b
Males (n = 6)Females (n = 6)All (n = 12)Males (n = 6)Females (n = 6)All (n = 12)Males (n = 5)Females (n = 6)All (n = 11)
Age, year36.2 (4.2)46.0 (5.5)41.1 (7.0)34.5 (6.0)38.8 (10.6)36.7 (8.5)32.8 (11.4)39.0 (11.4)36.2 (11.3)
Weight, kg103.5 (25.7)63.6 (7.6)83.5 (27.6)107.7 (10.7)82.3 (10.4)95.0 (16.6)122.4 (6.4)85.0 (15.3)102.0 (22.7)
Height, cm177.5 (8.5)172.8 (5.3)175.2 (7.2)177.5 (8.9)171.7 (9.8)174.6 (9.4)184.2 (6.5)164.0 (6.1)173.2 (12.1)
BMI, kg/m232.4 (5.7)21.3 (2.4)26.8 (7.1)32.2 (2.1)28.1 (4.5)31.1 (4.6)36.1 (2.2)31.4 (3.8)33.6 (3.9)
Mid STMD, min compression, mm11.6 (4.1)13.0 (6.4)12.3 (5.2)18.1 (2.1)18.4 (1.8)18.2 (1.9)24.8 (1.9)26.1 (3.2)25.5 (2.6)
Mid STMD, max compression, mm10.1 (3.8)10.1 (4.0)10.1 (3.7)16.5 (1.1)16.2 (1.5)16.4 (1.2)20.8 (0.3)23.2 (3.0)22.1 (2.5)
Distal STMD, min compression, mm10.6 (4.2)10.9 (4.2)10.7 (4.0)15.3 (2.7)16.1 (3.3)15.7 (2.9)20.3 (2.7)20.0 (3.8)20.2 (3.2)
Distal STMD, max compression, mm9.4 (4.0)9.6 (3.2)9.5 (3.5)13.4 (1.9)13.7 (2.6)13.5 (2.2)16.4 (2.7)17.0 (3.2)16.7 (2.8)
IM syringe needle length, (range), mmc18.2 (12–25)20.7 (12–30)19.4 (12–30)29.2 (25–40)26.7 (25–30)27.9 (25–40)40.0 (40–40)38.3 (30–40)39.1 (30–40)
  1. BMI body mass index, max maximum, min minimum, SD standard deviation, STMD skin-to-muscle distance
  2. aUnless otherwise noted
  3. bBased on maximum compression of STMD
  4. cValues are the mean; needle length for EpiPen Auto-Injector was approximately 16 mm for all STMD groups