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Table 3 The Relation between exposure indicators of indoor dampness and mold problems and the risk of ACOS and asthma only, the Finnish Environment and Asthma Study

From: Indoor mold odor in the workplace increases the risk of Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: a population-based incident case–control study

Exposure indicatorLocationOutcomeUnadjustedAdjusted for gender, age, education, and smoking
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Any water damageAt homeAsthma only1.02 (0.69–1.49)1.04 (0.70–1.54)
ACOSNANA
At workAsthma only0.94 (0.65–1.36)0.91 (0.63–1.32)
ACOS0.28 (0.04–2.08)0.51 (0.07–4.05)
At home and/or at workAsthma only0.89 (0.66–1.21)0.89 (0.65–1.20)
ACOS0.15 (0.02–1.12)0.23 (0.03–1.76)
Any dampnessAt homeAsthma only1.01 (0.74–1.36)1.01 (0.74–1.37)
ACOS0.55 (0.16–1.85)0.60 (0.17–2.08)
At workAsthma only0.95 (0.69–1.30)0.91 (0.66–1.26)
ACOS0.39 (0.09–1.66)0.70 (0.16–3.13)
At home and/or at workAsthma only0.97 (0.75–1.25)0.95 (0.73–1.23)
ACOS0.50 (0.19–1.34)0.68 (0.25–1.90)
Any visible moldAt homeAsthma only0.77 (0.44–1.34)0.75 (0.43 1.32)
ACOSNANA
At workAsthma only1.43 (0.84–2.41)1.33 (0.78–2.27)
ACOSNANA
At home and/or at workAsthma only1.07 (0.72–1.59)1.02 (0.68–1.53)
ACOSNANA
Any mold odorAt homeAsthma only1.08 (0.72–1.62)1.03 (0.68–1.57)
ACOS0.86 (0.20–3.69)0.98 (0.21–4.52)
At workAsthma only1.25 (0.84–1.85)1.15 (0.77–1.72)
ACOS1.87 (0.63–5.58)3.43 (1.04–11.29)a
At home and/or at workAsthma only1.10 (0.80–1.51)1.03 (0.74–1.42)
ACOS1.57 (0.62–4.00)2.37 (0.86–6.54)
Any visible mold or mold odorAt homeAsthma only0.99 (0.69–1.43)0.96 (0.66–1.40)
ACOS0.60 (0.14–2.57)0.75 (0.17–3.38)
At workAsthma only1.27 (0.88–1.84)1.19 (0.82–1.73)
ACOS1.60 (0.54–4.76)3.17 (0.97–10.37)
At home and/or at workAsthma only1.11 (0.83–1.48)1.06 (0.78–1.42)
ACOS1.21 (0.48–3.07)1.95 (0.72–5.30)
  1. ACOS Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable, OR odds ratio
  2. aStatistically significant (p < 0.05)