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Table 2 Supporting references by body system

From: Is chronic urticaria more than skin deep?

Body system Reference number Type of report Key content
Respiratory [11] Prospective study Pulmonary function tests revealed that 22/26 of CSU patients had asthma or abnormal bronchial reactivity
[12] Prospective study Bronchial hyperreactivity was present in 13/30 of cholinergic urticaria patients which was higher than CSU patients and healthy controls
[13] Prospective study Dermographism patients exhibited increase in airway resistance and a decrease in specific airway conductance
[10] Case report Authors reported two CU patients in whom urticaria onset was associated with the simultaneous appearance of asthmatic symptoms
Gastrointestinal system [14] Prospective study Forty-four percent of 330 CU patients described abdominal problems mainly gastritis
[16] Prospective study After duodenal histamine challenge, 5 of 7 CU patients showed systemic symptoms including diarrhoea and in 6 of 7 histopathological examination revealed ultrastructural changes in the duodenal tissue
[17] Prospective study Mast cell numbers were significantly increased in the stomach and duodenum of CU patients even if they did not have GIS symptoms
[21] Prospective study Gastroduodenal and intestinal permeability were significantly increased in patients with CU
[22] Case report A patient with cholinergic urticaria and erythematous pangastritis, whose severe dyspeptic complaints did not resolve with proton pump inhibitors but did with omalizumab
[23] Case report Transient hepatocellular injury including elevation of liver enzymes and hepatosplenomegaly during cholinergic urticaria attacks
Cardiovascular system [39] Prospective study Hypertension is associated with extended duration of CIU
[38] Retrospective study CIU patients had a 1.37-fold greater risk of developing hypertension than the non-CIU cohort
[33,34,35,36,37] Case report The authors described Kounis syndrome resulting from acute urticaria, chronic urticaria, autoimmune urticaria and cold urticaria
Central nervous system [42] Prospective study By using multiple-modality brain imaging tools, the authors demonstrated dysfunction of the striatum in CSU patients
[43] Prospective study Authors demonstrated the altered cerebellar activity and cerebellum-reward-sensorimotor loops in CSU
[40] Case report Authors described a patient with cholinergic urticaria associated with epileptic seizures and abnormalities on the encephalogram
[41] Case report Authors reported a patient with an unusual form of migraine with urticarial lesions appearing at the end of each migraine attack
Musculoskeletal system [47] Retrospective study 1035 (8.7%) patients with CU were diagnosed with osteoporosis compared with 4046 (6.8%) controls. The adjusted multivariate analysis demonstrated that CU was significantly associated with a higher risk for osteoporosis (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.10–1.37, P < 0.001)
[44] Case series Authors reported four cases with urticaria, angioedema, articular manifestations and HLA-B51 positivity
[45] Case series Authors described 9 patients with angioedema, hives and arthritis which they referred as AHA syndrome
[46] Case report Authors described a patient whose CU was associated with autoimmune thyroid disease and both CU and arthralgia responded to treatment with l-thyroxine
  1. The references are ranked according to evidence quality
  2. CU chronic urticaria, CIU chronic idiopathic urticaria, CSU chronic spontaneous urticaria