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Table 4 Zonulin levels in stool at baseline (ng/ml) and after each intervention

From: Cofactors of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis do not increase highly individual gliadin absorption in healthy volunteers

Pro-band Basal zonulin level Gluten Gluten + PPI Gluten + ASA Gluten + alcohol Gluten + aerobic exercise Gluten + anaerobic exercise Mean (P) (n = 6)
  (ng/ml)
P1 16.5low 44.5 16 10 16.5 45 82.5 35.8
P2 18low 89 26 39.5 108 38 6.5 51.2
P3 47.5high 8.5 21 16.5 78.5 n.d. 20.5 29.0
P4 12.5low 19.5 32 136.5 49 36 63 56.0
P5 27.5high 11 8 22 6 0 n.d. 9.4
P6 27high 33 27 n.d. 48.5 21.5 21 30.2
P7 0low 9.5 11 41 24 19 24 21.4
P8 32high 38 34 35 36.5 68 18.5 38.3
P9 25low 31.5 32 42 20.5 31.5 79 39.4
P10 33high 35.5 17.5 26.5 17 47.5 15 26.5
P11 25low 9.5 26.5 99.5 62.5 16.5 48.5 43.8
P12 29.5high 31.5 31.5 24 13 29.5 17.5 24.5
Median 26.0 31.5 26.3 35.0 30.3 31.5 21.0  
Mean (I) 24.5 30.1 23.5 44.8 40.0 32.0 36.0  
SEM 3.4 6.5 2.5 11.1 8.9 5.2 7.9  
  1. ASA acetyl salicylic acid, n.d. not determined, PPI proton pump inhibitor, SEM standard error of the mean
  2. Means (I) between six interventions (n = 12 probands) were not significantly different (p = 0.400, two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s test, with proband and intervention as factors), and neither were means (P) between probands (n = 6 interventions, p = 0.138)