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Table 1 Percentages of bifidobacteria and ER/CC at weeks 8, 12 and 26 in: (a) subgroup of subjects that did not take systemic antibiotics during the study period; (b) subgroup of subjects that received study product until week 26

From: A specific synbiotic-containing amino acid-based formula in dietary management of cow’s milk allergy: a randomized controlled trial

(A)
Bacteria (%) Week Test (N = 29) Control (N = 25) P valuea HBR (N = 51)
Bifidobacteria, mean [95% CI] 0 28.30 20.75 0.267b  
  [18.7–37.9] [10.8–30.7]   
  8 36.31 14.48 0.001 48.08
   [26.6–46.0] [6.9–22.1]   [40.6–55.5]
  12 53.09 17.61 0.003  
   [40.3–65.9] [6.3–29.0]   
  26 43.28 14.07 < 0.001  
   [31.5–55.0] [7.0–21.2]   
ER/CC cluster, mean [95% CI] 0 18.48 16.73 0.705b  
  [12.3–24.7][ [9.5–24.0]   
  8 13.44 24.99 0.014 10.38
   [8.1–18.8] [17.7–32.2]   [7.4–13.4]
  12 10.16 34.12 < 0.001  
   [4.2–16.1] [25.0–43.3]   
  26 15.92 31.72 0.002  
   [10.6–21.2] [23.5–40]   
(B)
Bacteria (%) Week Test (N = 20) Control (N = 19) P valuea HBR (N = 51)
Bifidobacteria, mean [95% CI] 0 26.63 17.74 0.231b  
  [14.8–38.4] [7.9–27.5]   
  8 38.40 13.06 0.002 48.08
   [23.4–53.4] [5.9–20.3]   [40.6–55.5]
  12 49.74 17.09 0.002  
   [28.0–71.5] [6.4–27.8]   
  26 48.77 15.12 < 0.001  
   [37.0–60.6] [7.0–23.3]   
ER/CC cluster, mean [95% CI] 0 23.55 13.42 0.074b  
  [15.1–32.0] [5.5–21.3]   
  8 6.31 25.52 < 0.001 10.38
   [3.7–9.0] [16.8–34.2]   [7.4–13.4]
  12 7.45 32.11 0.002  
   [2.1–12.7] [22.5–41.7]   
  26 13.07 33.92 < 0.001  
   [8.2–17.9] [24.8–43.0]   
  1. HBR healthy, breastfed reference group (infants within a similar age range to subjects in the randomized groups at study week 8 [29]). N is number of subjects, CI confidence interval
  2. aBased on ANCOVA comparing Test versus Control with stratification factor and baseline value as covariate and treatment as fixed effect
  3. bInterference based on t-test