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Table 4 Spirometric parameters of the individuals with asthma (mild to moderate and severe) studied

From: Dual exposure to smoking and household air pollution is associated with an increased risk of severe asthma in adults in Brazil

Characteristics Smokers (n = 78) Household pollution (n = 358) Double exposure (n = 155) No exposure (n = 405) P§
Pre-BD*
 FEV1 75 ± 18b.c 70 ± 19d.e 66 ± 17f 74 ± 18 < 0.001
 FEV1/FVC †† 0.73 ± 0.12 0.71 ± 0.13e 0.71 ± 0.14f 0.73 ± 0.13 0.073
 FEF25–75 % 64 ± 34c 57 ± 35d.e 46 ± 27f 65 ± 32 < 0.001
Post-BD*
 FEV1 82 ± 17b.c 76 ± 18d.e 72 ± 16f 80 ± 17 < 0.001
 FEV1/FVC†† 0.76 ± 0.12c 0.74 ± 0.12e 0.72 ± 0.13f 0.77 ± 0.13 0.001
 FEF25–75 % 76 ± 36b.c 66 ± 38d.e 52 ± 28f 77 ± 34 < 0.001
FEV1 post-BD < 80% 28 (35.9)b.c 203 (56.7)d.e 101 (65.2)f 180 (44.4) < 0.001
FEV1/FVC post-BD < 70%†;†† 25 (32.1) 127 (35.5)e 60 (38.7)f 111 (27.4) 0.036
FEF 25–75 % pre-BD < 60% 41 (52.6)c 221 (61.7)d.e 110 (71.0)f 191 (47.2) < 0.001
  1. Values expressed as mean ± std. dev. except where otherwise indicated
  2. aP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus unexposed
  3. bP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus domestic pollution
  4. cP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus double exposure
  5. dP ≤ 0.05 domestic pollution versus double exposure
  6. eP ≤ 0.05 domestic pollution versus unexposed
  7. fP ≤ 0.05 double exposure versus unexposed
  8. * BD–bronchodilator
  9. Values expressed as n (%) except where otherwise indicated
  10. ††Absolute values
  11. §P comparisons between 4 groups