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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of the individuals with asthma (mild to moderate and severe) studied

From: Dual exposure to smoking and household air pollution is associated with an increased risk of severe asthma in adults in Brazil

Characteristics Smokers (n = 78) Household air pollution (n = 358) Double exposure (n = 155) No exposure (n = 405) P §
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Asthma control status
 Uncontrolled 22 (28.2) 108 (30.2)e 52 (33.5)f 76 (18.8) < 0.001
 Controlled 56 (71.8) 250 (69.8) 103 (66.5) 329 (81.2)  
Asthma severity
 Mild to moderate 44 (56.4)b.c 124 (34.6)d.e 39 (25.2)f 245 (60.5) < 0.001
 Severe 34 (43.6) 234 (65.4) 116 (74.8) 160 (39.5)  
Oral corticosteroid bursts in the last 12 months
 None 48 (61.5) 192 (53.6) 82 (52.9) 239 (59.0) 0.329
 1 or more 30 (38.5) 163 (45.5) 70 (45.2) 163 (40.2)  
 No information 03 (0.8) 03 (1.9) 03 (0.7)  
Hospitalization for asthma last 12 months
 None 77 (98.7) 348 (97.2) 146 (94.2)f 397 (98.0) 0.079
 1 or more 01 (1.3) 10 (2.8) 09 (5.8) 08 (2.0)  
Emergency visits for asthma in last 12 months
 None 55 (70.5) 244 (68.2) 103 (66.5) 249 (61.5) 0.194
 1 or more 23 (29.5) 114 (31.8) 52 (33.5) 155 (38.3)  
 No information 01 (0.2)  
ICU hospitalization during lifetime 07 (9.0) 45 (12.6)e 23 (14.8)f 24 (5.9) 0.003
Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 27 (34.6) 122 (34.1) 51 (32.9) 123 (30.4) 0.691
First asthma symptoms after 18 years of age 20 (25.6) 124 (34.6)e 56 (36.1)f 97 (24.0) 0.002
  1. aP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus unexposed
  2. bP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus domestic pollution
  3. cP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus double exposure
  4. dP ≤ 0.05 domestic pollution versus double exposure
  5. eP ≤ 0.05 domestic exposure versus unexposed
  6. fP ≤ 0.05 double exposure versus unexposed
  7. §P comparisons for the 4 groups