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Table 2 Characteristics of exposure of the individuals with asthma (mild to moderate and severe) studied

From: Dual exposure to smoking and household air pollution is associated with an increased risk of severe asthma in adults in Brazil

Characteristics Smokers (n = 78) Household air pollution (n = 358) Double exposure (n = 155) No exposure (n = 405) P §
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Current smokers 13 (16.7)a.b.c 08 (5.2)f < 0.001
Former smokers 65 (83.3)a.b.c 147 (94.8)f < 0.001
Second hand tobacco exposure 24 (30.8)b 61 (17.0) 37 (23.9) 87 (21.5) 0.033
Domestic exposure to cigarette smoke 12 (15.4) 30 (8.4)d 26 (16.8) 44 (10.9) 0.029
Domestic exposure to cigarette smoke over last 24 h 06 (7.7) 11 (3.1)d.e 18 (11.6)f 26 (6.4) 0.003
Occupational exposure to cigarette smoke 14 (17.9)b 34 (9.5) 16 (10.3) 50 (12.3) 0.164
Occupational exposure to cigarette smoke over last 24 h 07 (9.0) 17 (4.7) 07 (4.5) 17 (4.2) 0.347
Cigarette smoke exposure over last 24 h 36 (46.2)a.b 105 (29.3)d 59 (38.1) 128 (31.6) 0.016
Urinary cotinine/creatinine ≥ 196.98 μg/g 06 (7.7)a.b 07 (2.0)d 18 (11.6)f 08 (2.0) < 0.001
Present exposure to wood combustion smoke 06 (1.7)e 0.013
  1. aP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus unexposed
  2. bP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus domestic pollution
  3. cP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus double exposure
  4. dP ≤ 0.05 domestic exposure versus double exposure
  5. eP ≤ 0.05 domestic exposure versus unexposed
  6. fP ≤ 0.05 double exposure versus unexposed
  7. §P comparisons between the 4 groups