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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals with asthma (mild to moderate and severe) studied

From: Dual exposure to smoking and household air pollution is associated with an increased risk of severe asthma in adults in Brazil

Characteristics Smokers (n = 78) Household pollution (n = 358) Double exposure (n = 155) No exposure (n = 405) P§
Sex n (%)
 Female 49 (62.8)a.b 310 (86.6)d.e 115 (74.2) 321 (79.3) < 0.001
 Male 29 (37.2) 48 (13.4) 40 (25.8) 84 (20.7)  
Average age (years ± SD) 43 ± 14a.b.c 50 ± 14d.e 54 ± 12f 38 ± 14 < 0.001
Family income (BRL) M (P25–75) 1000 (724–1800.)b.c 800 (682– 1400)e 724 (678–1300)f 1100 (786–1800) < 0.001
Marital status
 Single 44 (56.4)b 136 (38.0)e 66 (42.6)f 205 (50.6) 0.002
 Married 19 (24.4) 115 (32.1) 38 (24.5) 109 (26.9)  
 Other 15 (19.2) 107 (29.9) 51 (32.9) 91 (22.5)  
Self-referred skin colour
 Mulatto 38 (48.7) 181 (50.6) 91 (58.7)f 185 (45.7) 0.150
 Black 30 (38.5) 145 (40.5) 53 (34.2) 182 (44.9)  
 Other 10 (12.8) 32 (8.9) 11 (7.1) 38 (9.4)  
Educational level
 None 01 (1.3)b.c 23 (6.4)d.e 13 (8.4)f 03 (0.7) < 0.001
 Primary 06 (7.7) 70 (19.6) 55 (35.5) 21 (5.2)  
 2nd grade 13 (16.7) 90 (25.1) 42 (27.1) 47 (11.6)  
 High school 40 (51.3) 148 (41.3) 40 (25.8) 219 (54.1)  
 University or higher 18 (23.1) 27 (7.5) 05 (3.2) 114 (28.1)  
 No information 01 (0.2)  
Has lived in rural area 18 (23.1)b.c 212 (59.2)e 94 (60.6)f 106 (26.2) < 0.001
Years in rural areas M(P25–75) 12 (5–19) 14 (10–18)e 16 (11–20)f 12 (7–17) 0.003
  1. M(P25–75): Median (Percentile 25–75), BRL Brazilian Reais
  2. aP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus unexposed
  3. bP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus domestic exposure
  4. cP ≤ 0.05 smokers versus double exposure
  5. dP ≤ 0.05 domestic exposure versus double exposure
  6. eP ≤ 0.05 domestic exposure versus no exposure
  7. fP ≤ 0.05 double exposure versus no exposure
  8. Others—stable union; divorced/separated; widowed
  9. Others—White. Native American or Oriental
  10. §P value for 4-group comparisons