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Table 3 Clinical features, diagnosis and treatments of atopic dermatitis for small animals

From: Atopic dermatitis in cats and dogs: a difficult disease for animals and owners

  Dog References Cat References
Age Commonly 6 months to 3 years [41] Commonly < 3 years [31, 32]
Clinical symptoms Pruritus   Eosinophilic granuloma complex (indolent eosinophilic ulcer, eosinophilic granulomas, eosinophilic plaques) [32, 46, 47]
Inflammation (Erythema, self-induced alopecia, excoriation) secondary infection [41, 42] Head and neck pruritus
Miliary dermatitis
Self-induced alopecia
Affected body part Ear pinnae, axillae, ventral abdomen, extremities, paws, inguinal, lips, perianal region [42, 43] Head, mouth, neck, abdomen, trunk  
Diagnosis Exclusion diagnosis (rule out differential diagnosis, compatible history and clinical signs   Exclusion diagnosis (rule out differential diagnosis, compatible history and clinical signs  
Therapy Allergen contact avoidance [71] Allergen contact avoidance  
Specific targeted: Allergen-specific immunotherapy [70, 72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79, 81, 82] Specific targeted: Allergen specific immunotherapy [33]
Untargeted, symptomatic:   Untargeted, symptomatic:  
 Glucocorticoids [85]  Glucocorticoids  
 Ciclosporin [86, 87, 89]  Ciclosporin [88, 90, 91]
 Oclacitinib [92,93,94,95]  Oclacitinib [96]
 Lokivetmab [83, 84]   
 Antihistamines [97,98,99,100, 103,104,105]  Antihistamines [33, 106]
Topical:   Topical:  
 Shampoos [113, 114]   [110]
 Hydrocortisone-aceponate [108, 109]  Hydrocortisone-aceponate  
 Tacrolimus [111, 112]   
Supportive dietary interventions Essential fatty acids [116,117,118,119] Essential fatty acids [115]
Probiotics [124, 125]   
Cholecalciferol [129]