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Table 1 Similarities and differences of AD in dogs and humans

From: Atopic dermatitis in cats and dogs: a difficult disease for animals and owners

  Dogs Humans
Pathogenesis Th2 immune response
Skin barrier damage
Allergic inflammation
[18, 19, 153]
Th2 immune response
Skin barrier damage
Allergic inflammation
[154]
IL-4 and IL-13 Pruritus, acute inflammation [155] Pruritus, acute inflammation [156, 157]
Periostin (PO) expression Increased expression, related to the chronicity of skin lesions [158] Increased expression, related to the chronicity of skin lesions [159, 160]
Histologic pattern Spongiotic, hyperplastic dermatitis with mononuclear infiltrate; predominantely T-lymphocytes [153, 161] Spongiotic, hyperplastic dermatitis with mononuclear infiltrate; predominantely T-lymphocytes [162, 163]
Dysbiosis Reduced microbiome diversity [164] and fungal dysbiosis [165] Reduced microbiome diversity and fungal dysbiosis [166]
Clinical signs Eczematous skin lesions with no progression of clinical signs e.g. no development of asthma [2, 44] Atopic march
Allergy testing Intradermal testing without high risk of anaphylactic reactions [69] Skin prick testing
Immunotherapy Accelerated immunotherapy without increased risk for anaphylactic reactions [76, 78, 79] Standard AIT