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Table 2 Anxiety, depression, quality of life and quality of sleep in AR patients with perennial and seasonal symptoms depending on symptoms severity and persistence

From: Severity of allergic rhinitis impacts sleep and anxiety: results from a large Spanish cohort

  Persistent Intermitent p value Mild Moderate Severe p value
n = 104 n = 50 n = 31 n = 97 n = 26
Perennial
 HAD anxiety 6.4 ± 3.9 5.3 ± 3.7 **c 4.5 ± 3.8 6 ± 3.6 7.3 ± 4 ***a
 HAD depression 4.2 ± 3.6 3.5 ± 3.4 *c 3.4 ± 3.5 3.6 ± 3.3 5.3 ± 4 ***a
 HAD anxiety > 11 17.2% 11% nsb 9.4% 13. % 23.3% **a
 HAD depression > 11 31% 13% nsb 6.3% 4.1% 13.2% ***b
 MOS Sleep index I 64.8 ± 18.8 71.9 ± 17.1 ***c 76.4 ± 16.6 68.2 ± 17.6 57.4 ± 17.8 ***a
 MOS Sleep index II 65.5 ± 18 72.6 ± 16.7 ***c 77.3 ± 15.9 68.7 ± 16.9 58.6 ± 17.2 ***a
 MOS suboptimal sleep 40% 29.7% *b 36.4% 33.5% 43.4% nsb
 ESPRINT global 2.5 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.2 ***c 0.8 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.6 ***a
  n = 328 n = 188   n = 99 n = 291 n = 126  
Seasonal
 HAD anxiety 6.4 ± 3.8 6.2 ± 3.8 ns 6 ± 4.1 5.9 ± 3.5 7.3 ± 3.9 *a
 HAD depression 4.3 ± 3.4 3.6 ± 3.3 ns 4.3 ± 3.9 3.4 ± 3 5.5 ± 3.6 ***a
 HAD anxiety > 11 16.1% 16.1% ns 20.8% 11.4% 24.1% nsb
 HAD depression > 11 4.7% 4.9% ns 8.7% 1.8% 9.5% *b
 MOS Sleep index I 63.2 ± 19.2 67.9 ± 17.3 ns 69.2 ± 18.4 67.7 ± 18.2 56.2 ± 18.1 ***a
 MOS Sleep index II 63.9 ± 18.1 67.8 ± 17.4 ns 70 ± 17.3 67.9 ± 17.4 57 ± 18.2 ***a
 MOS suboptimal sleep 43.2% 35.5% ns 41.7% 37.7% 48.8% nsb
 ESPRINT global 2.8 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.1 ***c 1.3 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 1 3.3 ± 1.4 ***a
  1. Values expressed as mean ± SD. Comparisons between severity degrees (mild vs. moderate vs. severe) and symptoms persistence (intermittent vs. persistent) in both perennial AR and seasonal AR were made using aANOVA; bFisher’s exact test and ct test. p value ≤ *0.01, *0.001, ***0.000001
  2. Rhinitis severity was classified using modified-ARIA (Ref. [30]); HAD: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Ref. [19]), MOS: Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (ref. [21]); ESPRINT-15: Health-related quality of life questionnaire (Ref. [4, 23])