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Table 3 Drug classes deemed responsible for the cutaneous adverse reactions occurred in the context of hospitalisations with an associated diagnosis of erythema multiforme (EM) or Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN); Mainland Portugal, 2009–2014 (n = 254 hospitalisations)

From: Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme drug-related hospitalisations in a national administrative database

Drug class—n (%) Cutaneous adverse reactions SJS/TEN
EM (N = 122) SJS/TEN (N = 132) P value SJS (N = 73) SJS–TEN overlapa (N = 18) TEN (N = 41) P value
Antibiotics 36 (29.5) 34 (25.8) 0.504 18 (24.7) 6 (33.3) 10 (24.4) 0.731
 Penicillins 9 (7.4) 9 (6.8) 0.862 2 (2.7) 4 (22.2) 3 (7.3) 0.016
 Other specified antibioticsa 22 (18.0) 22 (16.7) 0.774 14 (19.2) 1 (5.6) 7 (17.1) 0.380
 Unspecified antibiotics 4 (3.3) 2 (1.5) 0.431 1 (1.4) 1 (2.4) 0.999
Other anti-infectives 10 (8.2) 18 (13.6) 0.167 12 (16.4) 4 (22.2) 2 (4.9) 0.117
 Sulfonamides 4 (3.3) 8 (6.1) 0.296 5 (6.8) 2 (11.1) 1 (2.4) 0.285
 Antimycobacterial drugs 1 (0.8) 2 (1.5) 0.999 2 (2.7) 0.654
 Antiviral drugs 1 (0.8) 7 (5.3) 0.068 4 (5.5) 2 (11.1) 1 (2.4) 0.340
Hormones and synthetic substitutes 7 (5.7) 7 (5.3) 0.879 5 (6.8) 2 (11.1) 0.126
Antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugsb 13 (10.7) 7 (5.3) 0.114 3 (4.1) 1 (5.6) 3 (7.3) 0.759
Agents primarily affecting blood constituents 4 (3.0) 0.123 2(2.7) 1 (5.6) 1 (2.4) 0.611
Analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics 11 (9.0) 7 (5.3) 0.249 3 (4.1) 1 (5.6) 3 (7.3) 0.759
Anticonvulsants 13 (10.7) 22 (16.7) 0.165 12 (16.4) 2 (11.1) 8 (19.5) 0.726
Sedatives and hypnotics 1 (0.8) 0.999 1 (5.6) 0.136
Psychotropic agents 2 (1.6) 4 (3.0) 0.685 2 (2.7) 2 (4.9) 0.789
Agents primarily affecting the cardiovascular system 2 (1.6) 2 (1.5) 0.999 1 (1.4) 1 (2.4) 0.999
Uric acid metabolism drugsc 21 (17.2) 26 (19.7) 0.611 17 (23.3) 2 (11.1) 7 (17.1) 0.447
Agents primarily acting on the smooth and skeletal muscles and respiratory system 1 (0.8) 0.480  
Agents primarily affecting skin and mucous membrane, ophthalmological, otorhinolaryngological and dental drugs 1 (0.8) 0.480  
Other and unspecified drugs and medicinal substancesd 9 (7.4) 12 (9.1) 0.620 7 (9.6) 5 (12.2) 0.368
  1. aIncludes, among others, macrolides, tetracyclines, and cephalosporins
  2. bThese were the only drugs of the class “primarily systemic agents” in which cutaneous adverse reactions were registered
  3. cThese were the only drugs of the class “water, mineral, and uric acid metabolism drugs” in which cutaneous adverse reactions were registered
  4. dThere were no cutaneous adverse reactions associated with use of drugs belonging to the classes “other central nervous system depressants and anesthetics”, “central nervous system stimulants”, “drugs primarily affecting the autonomic nervous system” and “agents primarily affecting gastrointestinal system”