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Table 1 Characteristics of children and adolescents with severe asthma (N = 65), at enrollment in the study and over the course of the follow-up period

From: Lung function in severe pediatric asthma: a longitudinal study in children and adolescents in Brazil

Variable At enrollment At the end of follow-up
Female gender, n (%) 41 (63.0) 41 (63.0)
Age (years)a 10.4 (7.8; 13.6) 13.5 (8.7; 16.1)
BMI 0.31 (− 0.64; 0.88) − 0.01 (− 0.65; 1.05)
Z-score > 3 0 1.0 (1.67)
Time followed by a pediatric pulmonologist (years)a 6.1 (4.3; 9.3)
Age of onset symptoms (years) 0.6 (1.3; 0.3)
Duration of disease (years)a 9.8 (6.1; 12.6)
Duration of ICS treatment (years)a 7.0 (4.6; 9.7)
Severe exacerbations in the last 12 months, n (%) 61 (94) 19 (29.2)
History of ICU admission due to asthma, n (%) 13 (20) 0
Asthma Control Test scorea 15.5 (12.0; 20.0) 22.0 (19.0; 24.0)
Treatment adherence, %a 92.0 (75; 100) 93.2 (80; 100)
Inhaler technique, n (%) 49 (75.4) 52 (80.0)
Lung function, n (%)
 FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio ≥ 80% of predicted 32 (49.2) 52 (80.0)
 FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio < 80% of predicted 33 (50.8) 13 (20.0)
 FEF25–75% < 70% of predicted 32 (49.2) 22 (44.4)
 FEF25–75% < 30% of predicted 1 (1.5) 1 (1.5)
Medication(s) used
 Dose of ICS (µg/day)a,b 800.0 (800.0; 1600.0) 876.1 (800.0; 2400.0)
 Long-acting β2 agonist, n (%) 65 (100) 65 (100.0)
 Leukotriene receptor antagonist, n (%) 11 (16.9) 40 (61.5)
 Oral corticosteroid (continuous use), n (%) 8 (12.3) 6 (9.2)
 Omalizumab, n (%) 0 6 (7.8)
Comorbidities
 Allergic rhinitis, n (%) 62.0 (95.4) 62.0 (95.4)
 Allergic rhinitis scorea 9.5 (5.3; 12.8) 6.0 (3.0; 10.0)
 Gastroesophageal reflux disease, n (%) 9.0 (13.9) 9.0 (13.9)
 Psychosocial problems, n (%) 10.0 (15.4) 15.0 (23.4)
Reported passive smoking in the home, n (%) 26.0 (40.0) 0
Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (ppb) 22.5 (10.0; 43.3) 13.5 (4.3; 36.5)
Serum IgE (IU/mL)a 821.0 (299.0; 1441.0)
Serum IgE of 30–1500 IU/mL, n (%) 10 (15.4)
Positive skin prick test result, n (%) 62 (95.4)
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, n (%) 51 (78.5)
Dermatophagoides farinae, n (%) 43 (66.2)
Blomia tropicalis, n (%) 49 (75.4)
Periplaneta americana, n (%) 13 (20.3)
Cat dander, n (%) 7 (10.8)
Blattella germanica, n (%) 12 (18.5)
Dog dander, n (%) 10 (15.4)
Interval between spirometry tests (months)a
 Cohort as a whole 3.03 (1.87; 3.97)
 > 800 µg/day subgroup 2.57 (1.63; 4.20)
  1. ICU intensive care unit
  2. aMedian (interquartile range)
  3. bBudesonide or equivalent