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Table 1 Potential diagnostic biomarkers

From: Endotype-driven treatment in chronic upper airway diseases

Endotypes Allergic rhinitis Idiopathic rhinitis Infectious rhinitis CRSwNP CRSsNP
Type 2 inflammation
Serum Eosinophils*
Total IgE
Specific IgE
ECP*
   Eosinophils*
Total IgE*
IgE/SE-IgE*
ECP*
 
Nasal fluids Total/specific IgE*
IL-5*
IL-4, IL-13*
Eosinophils*
   Total/specific IgE*
IL-5*
IL4, IL-13
ECP/MPO ratio*
ECP*
 
Non- type 2 inflammation
Nasal lavage/fluids    IL-1P, IL-6, IL-8, MPO
IFNγ
TNFα
  IL-1P, IL-6, IL-8, MPO*
IFNγ*
IL-17, IL-22, TNFα*
Nasal biopsy    Neutrophils   Neutrophils
Neurogenic endotype
Nasal fluids   SP    
Nasal biopsy   TRPV1    
Barrier dysfunction
Nasal biopsy ↓TER   ↓TER ↓TER  
↓TJ   ↓TJ ↓TJ ↓TJ
  1. ECP eosinophilic cationic protein; MPO myeloperoxidase; TER transepithelial resistance; TJ tight junctions; TRPV1 transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V receptor 1
  2. * Also detectable in nasal biopsies