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Table 2 General characteristics of the study population (based on individuals with complete data on dietary exposures and asthma score)

From: Is fruit and vegetable intake associated with asthma or chronic rhino-sinusitis in European adults? Results from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA2LEN) Survey

Variables Countries
Denmark Finland Sweden United Kingdom Germany The Netherlands
Odense (359) Helsinki (160) Total (1261) Total (173) Total (376) Amsterdam (215)
Age, years; mean (SD) 48.1 (14.5) 46.8 (15.1) 45.7 (15.1) 51.6 (13.2) 48.8 (15.6) 52.6 (13.9)
Males, n (%) 162 (45.1) 62 (38.8) 556 (44.1) 70 (40.5) 152 (403) 111 (51.6)
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 (14.8) 26.5 (4.6) 25.9 (7.2) 27.1 (5.6) 26.3 (4.8) 25.7 (3.7)
Age at completing full-time education; years (SD) 23.4 (5.5) 23.5 (5.5) 24.5 (7.7) 18.1 (3.6) 20.6 (5.2) 20.2 (4.6)
Employment status       
 Employed 188 (52.7) 94 (58.9) 737 (58.5) 85 (49.7) 196 (52.0) 103 (47.9)
 Retired 82 (23.0) 32 (20.0) 199 (15.8) 39 (22.8) 88 (23.3) 56 (21.1)
 Unemployed 11 (3.1) 3 (1.9) 38 (3.0) 4 (2.3) 12 (3.2) 5 (2.3)
 Other 76 (21.5) 31 (19.4) 286 (22.7) 43 (25.1) 81 (21.5) 51 (23.7)
Smoking       
 Never smokers 155 (43.4) 83 (51.9) 672 (53.3) 77 (44.5) 183 (48.4) 84 (39.1)
 Ex-smokers 102 (28.6) 37 (23.1) 428 (33.9) 70 (40.5) 131 (34.7) 88 (40.9)
 Current smokers 100 (28.0) 40 (25.0) 162 (12.8) 26 (15.0) 64 (16.9) 43 (20.0)
Asthma score; N (%)       
 0 145 (40.4) 96 (59.6) 583 (46.2) 66 (38.2) 161 (42.6) 100 (41.0)
 1 85 (23.7) 31 (19.3) 276 (21.9) 37 (21.4) 107 (28.3) 40 (18.6)
 2 50 (13.9) 15 (9.3) 195 (15.5) 22 (12.7) 47 (12.4) 37 (17.2)
 3 47 (13.1) 10 (6.2) 114 (9.0) 17 (11.5) 35 (9.3) 23 (10.7)
 4 24 (6.7) 7 (4.4) 61 (4.8) 26 (15.0) 16 (4.2) 12 (5.6)
 5 8 (2.2) 2 (1.2) 33 (2.6) 5 (2.9) 12 (3.2) 3 (1.4)
Chronic rhino-sinusitis; n (%) 63 (17.6) 29 (17.8) 234 (18.3) 22 (12.6) 62 (16.2) 52 (23.9)
Asthma ever (n; %) 115 (32.0) 44 (27.0) 510 (39.8) 80 (45.7) 83 (21.7) 44 (20.2)
CRS only (n; %) 42 (11.7) 17 (10.4) 102 (8.0) 10 (5.7) 38 (9.9) 40 (18.4)
Both asthma ever and CRS (n; %) 21 (5.9) 12 (7.4) 132 (10.3) 12 (6.9) 23 (6.0) 12 (5.5)
Total Energy Intake (TEI) 2577 (761) 3197 (1140) 3110 (978) 2833 (889.6) 2821 (1049) 2817 (827)
Use of nutritional supplements, n (%) 143 (40.4) 70 (43.5) 325 (26.0) 58 (33.7) 102 (27.1) 88 (41.0)
% people eating fruits (all types) ≥5 times/week 202 (56.4) 93 (57.1) 717 (56.0) 101 (57.7) 213 (55.8) 114 (52.3)
% people eating total vegetables (all types) ≥5 times/week 224 (62.4) 128 (78.5) 906 (70.7) 92 (52.6) 194 (50.7) 78 (35.8)
Variables Countries
Portugal Belgium Poland Total
Coimbra (266) Ghent (148) Total (244) 3202
Age, years; mean (SD) 47.1 (15.0) 45.7 (15.1) 49.7 (15.7) 47.6 (15.1)
Males, n (%) 93 (35.0) 71 (48.0) 104 (42.6) 1381 (43.1)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 25.9 (5.1) 24.9 (4.4) 27.4 (5.2) 26.3 (5.2)
Age at completing full-time education; years (SD) 20.1 (4.6) 20.6 (6.6) 20.4 (3.4) 22.4 (6.6)
Employment status     
 Employed 140 (52.6) 75 (51.0) 89 (38.0) 1707 (53.6)
 Retired 56 (26.5) 26 (17.7) 86 (36.8) 664 (20.8)
 Unemployed 11 (4.1) 3 (2.0) 12 (5.1) 99 (3.1)
 Other 59 (22.2) 30 (22.4) 47 (20.0) 717 (22.5)
Smoking     
 Never smokers 172 (64.7) 75 (50.7) 111 (45.7) 1612 (50.4)
 Ex-smokers 56 (21.1) 45 (30.4) 78 (32.1) 1035 (32.2)
 Current smokers 38 (14.3) 28 (18.9) 54 (22.2) 555 (17.3)
Asthma score     
 0 109 (41.0) 57 (38.5) 78 (32.0) 1395 (43.5)
 1 49 (18.4) 34 (23.0) 73 (29.9) 732 (22.8)
 2 41 (15.4) 22 (14.9) 34 (13.9) 463 (14.4)
 3 27 (910.2) 17 (11.5) 28 (11.5) 318 (9.9)
 4 23 (8.7) 12 (8.1) 17 (7.0) 198 (6.2)
 5 17 (6.4) 6 (4.1) 14 (5.7) 100 (3.1)
Chronic rhino-sinusitis; n (%) 78 (29.2) 43 (29.1) 50 (20.2) 633 (19.5)
Asthma ever (n; %) 59 (22.1) 23 (15.5) 37 (15.0) 995 (30.7)
CRS only (n; %) 44 (16.5) 28 (18.9) 39 (15.8) 360 (11.1)
Both asthma ever and CRS (n; %) 34 (12.7) 15 (10.1) 11 (4.5) 272 (8.4)
Total Energy Intake (TEI); mean (SD) 3195 (1296) 2937 (885) 3211 (1661) 2993 (1072)
Use of nutritional supplements, n (%) 16 (6.0) 50 (33.8) 53 (22.0) 905 (28.4)
% people eating fruits (all types) ≥5 times/week 189 (70.8) 80 (54.1) 158 (64.0) 1867 (57.6)
% people eating total vegetables (all types) ≥5 times/week 206 (77.2) 77 (52.0) 182 (73.7) 2087 (64.4)