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Table 2 The adjusted odds ratios of atopic sensitization and atopic disease in adolescence in 617 Norwegian children by weight/BMI SDS and physical activity after backward stepwise selection of potential confounders (one model for each predictor variable)

From: Body mass index and physical activity in early childhood are associated with atopic sensitization, atopic dermatitis and asthma in later childhood

Predictor Outcome variable (final analyses)
Atopic sensitizationa,b Allergic rhinoconjunctivitisa Atopic dermatitisc
Age n OR 95 % CI LR-p n OR 95 % CI LR-p n OR 95 % CI LR-p
Weight SDS
Birth 380 1.05 (0.87, 1.26) 0.609 580 0.92 (0.77, 1.10) 0.338 544 1.04 (0.88, 1.22) 0.638
BMI SDS
3 months 353 1.13 (0.90, 1.41) 0.315 521 0.91 (0.73, 1.14) 0.427 487 1.04 (0.84, 1.30) 0.694
6 months 363 1.15 (0.93, 1.42) 0.205 537 0.91 (0.74, 1.12) 0.390 503 1.05 (0.86, 1.28) 0.654
1 year 363 1.22 (1.00, 1.49) 0.050 537 0.97 (0.80, 1.18) 0.795 503 1.06 (0.87, 1.28) 0.557
4 yearsd 320 1.01 (0.80, 1.27) 0.934 456 0.86 (0.69, 1.08) 0.191 427 1.32 (1.06, 1.65) 0.012
First follow-upe 358 0.95 (0.79, 1.15) 0.612 562 0.87 (0.73, 1.04) 0.126 527 1.11 (0.93, 1.33) 0.225
Second follow-upe 354 0.96 (0.79, 1.17) 0.680     N.A.     N.A.
Physical activity
At 3–6 yearsf 320    0.039 456    0.157 427    0.519
 Normal 192 1.00 Reference   277 1.00 Reference   259 1.00 Reference  
 Low 40 2.36 (1.15, 4.81)   57 1.60 (0.83, 3.09)   57 1.30 (0.65, 2.61)  
 High 88 0.90 (0.50, 1.61)   122 0.77 (0.44, 1.35)   111 1.34 (0.78, 2.30)  
At 6–10 yearsg 358    0.773 562    0.126 527    0.033
 Normal 234 1.00 Reference   353 1.00 Reference   333 1.00 Reference  
 Low 57 1.05 (0.57, 1.96)   93 1.67 (0.97, 2.87)   89 1.49 (0.87, 2.56)  
 High 67 0.82 (0.45, 1.49)   116 1.15 (0.68, 1.93)   105 1.94 (1.16, 3.24)  
  1. First follow-up: 10.8 years (girls) and 11.8 years (boys); Second follow-up: 12.8 years (both sexes)
  2. Italics numbers indicate statistically significant results
  3. n number of participants, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, LR-p (likelihood ratio-test p-value) refers to predictor only, BMI body mass index (kg/m2), SDS standard deviation score, N.A. not applicable
  4. aAdjusted for sex, preeclampsia and gestational age
  5. bn = 388. Ordinal response: none, low grade, high grade (sum of specific IgE ≥ 3.9 kU/l; above the lower quartile of all children being sensitized)
  6. cAdjusted for sex, mother’s asthma and mother’s smoking
  7. dAlso adjusted for physical activity at 3–6 years
  8. eAlso adjusted for physical activity at 6–10 years
  9. fAlso adjusted for BMI SDS at 4 years
  10. gAlso adjusted for BMI SDS at the first follow-up