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Table 1 Main characteristics of participants

From: Optimizing diagnostic tests for persulphate-induced respiratory diseases

  Hairdressers (n = 19) Symptomatic controls (n = 12) Healthy controls (n = 40) P valueα
Mean age, years (SD) 31 (10.5) 21 (2.6) 35 (12.9) 0.002
BMI, mean (SD) 22.5 (3.8) 22.4 (3.4) 24.7 (4.3) 1.000
Sex (% female) 19 (100) 7 (58) 43 0.02
Smoking status, n (%)
 Smoker 7 (37) 5 (42) 0.79
 Never smoker 12 (63) 7 (58)
Atopic dermatitis, n (%) 3 (16) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0.06
Total IgE, mean (SD) 58.3 (76) 156.5 (202)   0.22
Atopya (%) 6 (32) 10 (83)   0.009
FeNO ≥ 25 ppb, n (%) 3 (16) 5 (42)   0.20
FeNO ≥ 50 ppb, n (%) 1 (5.2) 3 (25)   
Lung function, mean (SD)
 % FEV1 101.7 (9.7) 106.6 (14.8)   0.48
 % FVC 105.3 (8.7) 116.8 (14.1)   0.025
 FEV1/FVC 84.8 (7.6) 78.9 (6.6)   0.43
Methacholine test
 BHR, n (%) 5 (26) 7 (58)   0.13
Asthma medication, n (%)
 None 12 (63) 0 (0)   
 SABA 3 (16) 7 (58)   
 SABA + low dose ICS 1 (5) 3 (25)   
 SABA + medium dose ICS 1 (5) 2 (17)   
 SABA + LABA/ICS 1 (5) 0 (0)   
 SABA + LTRA 1 (5) 0 (0)   
Rhinitis medication, n (%)
 None 13 (68) 2 (17)   
 OA 2 (11) 8 (67)   
 INS 1 (5) 1 (8)   
 OA + INS 2 (11) 1 (8)   
 OA + antihistamine eye drops 1 (5) 0 (0)   
Work-related symptoms, n (%)
 Rhinitis symptoms 1 (5)   
 Asthma symptoms 1 (5)   
 Both 17 (90)   
Trigger of symptoms, n (%)
 Bleaching products 19 (100)   
 Hair dye 9 (49)   
 Hair spray 4 (21)   
 Permanent solution 3 (16)   
 Perfume 3 (16)   
Positive stop/resume test, n (%) 16 (84)   
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SABA short-acting beta2-agonists, LABA long-acting beta2-agonists, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, LTRA leukotriene receptor antagonists, INS intra-nasal steroid
  2. aDefined as 1 ≥positive SPT or 1 ≥positive specific IgE to common inhalant allergens
  3. αComparing hairdressers with controls