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Fig. 1 | Clinical and Translational Allergy

Fig. 1

From: Innate lymphocyte cells in asthma phenotypes

Fig. 1

Function and regulation of group 2 lymphoid cells in different asthma phenotypes. Innate lymphoid cells group 2 (ILC2s) of early onset asthma and late onset asthma with polyposis are regulated by several elements such as the epithelial cell derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin 25 (IL-25) and IL-33; arachidonic acid metabolites, like prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and leukotriene D4 (LTD4). Lung ILC2s produces IL-9 that also regulates their activation. ILC2s release IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13; then increase the airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia. Lung ILC2s also secrete arginase 1. ILC2s can stimulate naive T cells (TH0) by IL-4, costimulatory molecules OX40L and a contact-dependent mechanism favoring TH2 polarization. In the virus induced asthma phenotype, lungs ILC2s constitute a balance between tissue repair and tissue damage via amphiregulin and type 2-cytokine secretion. The damage is potentialized by IL-33 and the repairing capacity is enhanced by maresins. Eos, eosinophil

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