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Table 2 Fecal calprotectin, IgA and β-defensin 2 levels in young children (n = 57) with gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of non-IgE cow’s milk allergy

From: Markers of gut mucosal inflammation and cow’s milk specific immunoglobulins in non-IgE cow’s milk allergy

   Cow’s milk free diet Cow’s milk challenge† p-value Controls (n = 22)
Fecal calprotectin (μg/g) CMA positive (n = 18) 52 [33–86]* 60 [30–122] 0.5995 25 [13–50]
CMA negative (n = 39) 28 [21–36]* 33 [24–44] 0.4674
p-value   *0.0203 0.0737   
Fecal IgA (g/l) CMA positive (n = 18) 0.54 [0.37–0.79] 0.48 [0.36–0.62] 0.4509 0.33 [0.22–0.51]
CMA negative (n = 39) 0.46 [0.35–0.61] 0.45 [0.36–0.55] 0.3138
p-value   0.6349 0.8086   
Fecal β-defensin2 (ng/ml) CMA positive (n = 18) 38.6 [19.6–75.7] 47.50 [23.1–97.8] 0.1354 20.8 [8.6–50.0]
CMA negative (n = 39) 22.4 [14.5–34.6] 31.12 [20.5–47.3] 0.1144
p-value   0.1976 0.2520   
  1. Cow’s milk allergy was diagnosed with the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Values in table are geometric means [95% Confidence Interval of the mean].
  2. *Mann–Whitney test p-values reported between the two patients groups. Values below 0.05 are considered significant.
  3. † Fecal samples taken 3–5 days after start of cow’s milk containing challenge formula.