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Table 1 Characteristics of pediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of non-IgE cow’s milk allergy

From: Markers of gut mucosal inflammation and cow’s milk specific immunoglobulins in non-IgE cow’s milk allergy

  All patients Challenge negative Challenge positive p-value* Controls (with no food allergies)
  n = 57 n = 39 n = 18   n = 22
Age, months (median, range) 8.7 (2.4–40.8) 8.7 (2.5 –25.6) 8.4 (2.4–40.8) NS 13.2 (4.8–30)
Duration of CM free diet before challenge, months (median, range) 2.5 (0.5–35) 2.4 (0.5–14) 2.5 (0.5–35) NS NA
CM specifig IgE > 0.35 kU/l 0 0 0 NS 0
SPT wheal size ≥3 mm for cow’s milk 4 2 2 NS ND
Symptoms associated with CMA suspicion  
Loose stools, n (%)   18 (46%) 14 (78%) 0.0432  
During CM challenge   1 15 0.0001  
Placebo challenge   10 1  
Excessive crying, n (%)   30 (77%) 11 (56%) NS  
During CM challenge   2 8 NS  
Placebo challenge   15 4  
Vomiting/reflux, n (%)   19 (49%) 8 (44%) NS  
During CM challenge   0 3 NS  
Placebo challenge   7 2  
Constipation, n (%)   10 (26%) 2 (11%) NS  
During CM challenge   0 0 NS  
Placebo challenge   0 0  
Skin eruptions, n(%)   10 (26%) 5 (28%) NS  
During CM challenge   2 2 NS  
Placebo challenge   2 3   
  1. CM Cow’s Milk.
  2. SPT Skin Prick test.
  3. CMA Cow’s milk allergy.
  4. NS Not significant.
  5. NA Not applicable.
  6. ND Not done.
  7. *p-values below 0.05 are considered significant.
  8. This table is modified from Merras-Salmio et al. [11].