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Table 1 Incidence of risk factors for dysfunctional breathing in study group

From: Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

Risk factor Subjects with DB (n = 16) Subjects without DB (n = 75) p value
Age (years; mean ± SD) 37.88 ± 1.39 34.44 ± 1.39 0,2880
Female sex 13(82.25%)* 34(45.33%) 0,0091
Obesity 6(37.5%) 37(49.33%) 0,3894
Atopy 9(56.25%) 72(96%)* <0,00001
Active smoker 5(31.25%) 12(16%) 0,1554
Moderate/severe rhinitis 13((82.25%)* 41(54.67%) 0,0494
Psychopathology 12(75%)* 2(2.67%) <0,00001
GERD 8(50%)* 1(1.33%) <0,00001
High blood pressure 2(12.5%) 6(8%) 0,5639
Severe asthma 9(56.25%)* 15(20%) 0,0028
Lack of asthma control 13((82.25%)* 4(5.33%) <0,00001
Asthma duration > 5 years 9(56.25%) 25(33.33%) 0,0854
Fixed airway obstruction 1(6.25%) 11(14.67%) 0,3663
Fast FEV1 decline 4(25%)* 4(5.33%) 0,0117
Frequent exacerbator 15(93.75%)* 8(10.67%) <0,00001
Brittle asthma 6(37.5%)* 1(1.33%) <0,00001
Lack of ICS 4(25%) 44(58.67%)* 0,0143
Use of LABA as add-on 7(43.75%) 16(21.33%) 0,0611
Use of LTRA 7(43.75%) 55(73.33%)* 0,0211
  1. * p value statistically significant.