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Table 2 Prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ and logistic regression models with crude and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR)

From: Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

  Current asthma % (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)§
All Portuguese Population 6.8 ( 6.0- 7.7)   
NUTS II    
  North 6.7 ( 5.5- 8.2) 1.00 (Ref)  
  Centre 6.2 ( 4.6- 8.3) 0.92 (0.63-1.35)  
  Lisbon 6.8 ( 5.4- 8.6) 1.01 (0.72-1.42)  
  Alentejo/Algarve 7.9 ( 5.4-11.3) 1.18 (0.75-1.87)  
  Madeira/Azores 6.6 ( 3.9-10.9) 0.98 (0.55-1.77)  
Municipality    
  Urban 6.5 ( 5.6- 7.4) 1.00 (Ref)  
  Rural 7.7 ( 5.9-10.1) 1.22 (0.87-1.69)  
Gender    
  Female 7.2 ( 6.0- 8.5) 1.00 (Ref)  
  Male 6.3 ( 5.2- 7.6) 0.87 (0.66-1.14)  
Age groups    
  <18 years old 7.2 ( 5.4- 9.5) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  18-65 years old 6.3 ( 5.3- 7.5) 0.86 (0.61-1.23) 0.94 (0.63-1.40)
  >65 years old 8.0 ( 6.7- 9.5) 1.11 (0.78-1.59)* 1.51 (1.01-2.27) §*
Education level    
  <9 years 7.1 ( 6.1- 8.2) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  9-12 years 7.4 ( 5.6- 9.7) 1.05 (0.75-1.47) 0.92 (0.64-1.32)
  >12 years 4.5 ( 3.0- 6.6) 0.62 (0.40-0.96) 0.44 (0.28-0.70) §**
SES    
  Low 6.9 ( 5.3- 8.9) 1.00 (Ref)  
  Medium 6.9 ( 5.9- 8.0) 1.00 (0.73-1.37)  
  High 6.3 ( 3.8-10.3) 0.91 (0.50-1.66)  
Smoking status    
  Non-smoker 6.9 ( 6.0- 8.0) 1.00 (Ref)  
  Ex-smoker 6.3 ( 4.7- 8.5) 0.91 (0.63-1.30)  
  Current smoker 6.3 ( 4.3- 9.1) 0.90 (0.59-1.34)  
ETS ††    
  No 6.1 ( 5.3- 7.0) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 8.6 ( 6.7-11.0) 1.45 (1.06-1.97) * 1.53 (1.09-2.16) §***
Chronic Bronchitis ‡‡    
  No 6.5 (5.7-7.4) 1.00(Ref)  
  Yes 14.6 (9.8-21.2) 2.23 (1.38-3.59)  
Rhinitis plus Sinusitis    
  No 6.4 ( 5.6- 7.3) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 39.1 (24.9-55.4) 9.34 (4.75-18.35) ** 13.93 (6.60-29.44) §§
Rhinitis without Sinusitis    
  No 4.6 ( 3.8- 5.5) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 14.9 (12.6-17.6) 3.67 (2.79-4.82) ** 3.87(2.90-5.18) §§
Sinusitis without Rhinitis    
  No 6.7 ( 5.9- 7.6) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 8.7 ( 3.3-21.2) 1.33 (0.47-3.76) ** 2.01 (0.64-6.34)
Eczema    
  No 5.1 ( 4.3- 6.1) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 11.5 ( 9.6-13.7) 2.41 (1.84-3.17) ** 2.00 (1.50-2.66) §§
Food allergy    
  No 6.3 ( 5.5- 7.1) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 15.7 (10.8-22.3) 2.79 (1.77-4.40) ** 1.89 (1.15-3.10) §§*
Drug allergy    
  No 6.3 ( 5.5- 7.3) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  Yes 11.9 ( 8.7-16.1) 2.00 (1.38-2.92) ** 1.30 (0.86-1.95)
  1. † ‘Pre-schoolers’ and <9 years were merged. Socioeconomic status was categorized in high (A social class), medium (B and C social classes) and low (D social class) based on occupation and school education of the person who contributes more for the household income. ††Environmental Tobacco Smoke. ‡‡Chronic bronchitis was defined as positive answer to questions “Did you have phlegm when coughing for at least 3 months in the last year?” and smoked more than 10 Packs-year and be at least 40 years old. *p < 0.25 **p < 0.001. § Final multiple logistic regression model included age, education level, ETS, , rhinitis plus sinusitis, rhinitis without sinusitis, sinusitis without rhinitis, eczema, drug allergy and food allergy as risk factors for Current asthma. §*p = 0.006 §**p = 0.002 §***p = 0.015 §§p < 0.001 §§*p = 0.012. Significant results in bold. OR – odds ratio.