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Table 4 Risk factors for allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose by multiple logistic regression analysis.

From: Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

Independent variables Dependent variables
Variables Categories Allergic rhinitis ever Nasal blocking Runny nose
   OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Sex Women 1.00 (0.84-1.21) 1.47 (1.26 - 1.72) 1.36 (1.18 - 1.58)
Age ≥ 45 1.11 (0.96 - 1.29) 1.03 (0.92 - 1.16) 1.05 (0.94 - 1.18)
Areas Hoankiem 3.94 (3.40 - 4.56) 1.62 (1.44 - 1.81) 1.01 (0.90 - 1.13)
Exposed to gas, dust, fumes Yes 1.57 (1.34 - 1.84) 1.90 (1.68 - 2.15) 1.32 (1.17 - 1.49)
Smoking Non-smoker 1 1 1
  Ex-smoker 1.20 (0.77 - 1.85) 0.93 (0.64-1.34) 0.98 (0.70 - 1.38)
  Current- smoker 0.81 (0.66 - 1.00) 1.13 (0.96 - 1.34) 1.13 (0.96 - 1.32)
  1. Risks in odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).