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Table 1 Summary of immunosenescence features

From: Allergic diseases in the elderly

Cell type Changes with aging
Neutrophils Reduced phagocytosis
  Reduced reactive oxygen species production
  Defect in apoptotic cell death
Eosinophils Reduced degranulation
  Reduced superoxide production
Mast cells Reduced degranulation
  Dysregulations in function
Monocytes/macrophages Reduced phagocytosis
  Reduced cytokine and chemokine secretion
  Reduced generation of nitric oxide and superoxide
Dendritic cells Reduced phagocytosis and pinocytosis
  Increased IL-6 and TNF-alfa production
  Diminished TLR expression and function
  Dysregulations in function
T cells Reduced response and proliferation
  Reduced CD28 expression
  Reduced TCR diversity
  Reduced signal transduction
  Dysregulations in function
B cells Production of low-affinity antibodies
  Increased oligoclonal expansion
  Decline in serum total IgE values
  Reduced surface MHC class II molecule expression
  Dysregulations in function
Epitelial cells Impaired production of cytokines
  Decreased clearance of particles
NK cells and NKT cells Reduced numbers or increased in several tissues
Reduced cytotoxicity and proliferation
  1. Adapted from [47]